HDFS CH. 15
Exam 5: Social Aspects of Later Life
Terms in this set (21)
-theory based on idea that people tend to cope with daily life in later adulthood by applying familiar strategies based on past experience to maintain and preserve both internal and external structures.
-3 categories: too little, too much, and optimal
-too little: feel that life is unpredictable
-too much: boredom, or everything is too predictable; not enough change to make life interesting.
-optimal: just enough change to be challenging and provide interest, but not so much to overly tax one's resources.
-internal: remember inner past, emotions, temperament, experiences. one's personal identity
-external: remember physical and social environments, role relationships, and activities. be in familiar environments.
-shows how competence (physical health, sensory motor, motor skills, cognitive skills, ego strength) and Environmental press (physical, interpersonal, social demands environment puts on people) are related.
-low to high competence is represented on vertical axis and weak to strong environmental press is on horizontal axis.
-points on figure represent combination of two
-shaded areas show adaptive behavior and positive affect can result from many different combos.
integrity vs. despair
-according to erikson, the process of late life by which people try to make sense of their lives.
-Stage of reflection on life
Contentment and fulfillment with life
Feelings of having made a contribution to society
Acceptance of death
Focus on failures; lack of sense of purpose
Fear of death
-the process by which people reflect on the events and experiences of their lifetimes.
-understand that life is coming to a close. this happens with integrity.
crisp vs blurred
-crisp retirement: retire at certain age then never do anything work related again.
-fewer than half of older men fit this pattern.
-blurred: go from full time to part-time work in an effort to maintain economic status
-transitional job held between one's exit from a career job and final retirement.
-many workers do this
-Bridge jobs increase satisfaction both with retirement and one's overall life
-Compared to men, women
-enter the workforce later, have more interruptions in their work history, and generally have less retirement income due to lower wages
-rarely have their own sources of retirement income if they were never employed outside of the home
-spend less time planning for retirement
-are likelier to continue working part-time after retiring
adjustment to retirement
-men have harder time with this.
-How does retirement affect health and well-being?
-What factors predict good adjustment?
Retirement is by choice
Retirement is "on time" in line with social norms
Both spouses retire at same time
Relationship is good
-Social convoys (Toni Antonucci)
-Circles of close friends, family members, spouse
Numbers decline with age
-BUT, satisfaction with social relationships increases
Sibling relationships loom larger in late life
-group of people that journeys with us throughout our lives, providing support in good times and bad.
Socioemotional Selectivity Theory
-Distant time horizon
Preference for exploration and expanding social networks
-Close horizon (e.g. death)
Preference for nurturing existing supportive, close relationships
Pruning off of less important and/or non-supportive ones
-Theory of time rather than aging per se
-process by which social contact is motivated by many goals, including information seeking, self concept, and emotional regulation.
frail older adults
-older adults who have physical disabilities, are very ill, and may have cognitive or psychological disorders.
-Physical disabilities, cognitive and/or psychological disorders; being very ill
-40% of people over 65 have some kind of functional limitation
activities of daily living
-basic self care tasks such as eating, bathing, toileting, walking, and dressing.
-considered frail if they need help with these things.
-Instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs): tasks requiring intellectual competence and planning
-Older adults tend to report being happier, more satisfied with life
Older adults remember happy faces better than sad or angry ones (vs. young adults)
ecology of aging
-In what settings to people age?
-Strong preference for aging in place
Adult day care
Maintenance of some level of independence
Move typically triggered by hospital stay
Residents typically functionally impaired
Availability of skilled staff
-Sense of place: a person's cognitive and emotional attachments to his/her place of residence
-Most older adults do not want
To move in with family or friends
To be in assisted living or a nursing homes
-Home modifications — major or minor— can allow older adults to continue living in their home
-Assisted living facilities: for those with functional limitations, but who do not need 24-hour care due to physical or cognitive impairments
-Do not provide 24 x 7 medical care
67% in these facilities are 65 or older and have one or more of these limitations
50% have a memory impairment
provide 24 x 7 medical care
house 5% of U.S. older adults
house 15% of those over 85
are evaluated carefully through the Nursing Home Quality Initiative
-Typically the last resort
-Staff well-trained to deal with older adults with significant impairments
E.g. Alzheimer's dementia
-In the 1950s, roughly 35% of older adults fell below the federal poverty line
-In 2008, about 10% fell below this line
-Yet older adults may need 200% of the current federal poverty limit to cover basic expenses and healthcare
-Today it is the primary source of financial support for retired people
-Federal health insurance for
People 65 and over
People under 65 with certain disabilities
-Anyone with end-stage renal disease (permanent kidney failure requiring dialysis or transplant)
Hospital stays (Part A)
Monthly premium typically already paid through payroll taxes
Medical insurance (Part B)
Outpatient care; physical therapy; some home health care
-Benefits can be through private health plans (Part C)
Prescription drugs (Part D)
75% coverage up to $2,830 total expenses
No coverage from $2,830 to $6,440 the "donut hole"
80% coverage after $6,440
-Funding from federal and state levels
Administered by states
-Provides health coverage for poor and disabled (and some others)
Eligibility based on income, means testing
E.g. 133% of poverty level - $29,700 for family of four in 2011
States decide eligibility after that
Indiana - 250% of poverty
New York - 400% of poverty
Alaska - 175% of poverty
Broader health coverage than Medicare
-type of coping strategy that includes seeking pastoral care,participation in organized and non organized religious activities, and expressing faith in a god who cares for people.