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FSHN 167 - Exam 1
Terms in this set (38)
Summarize the conclusions of a recent pooled analysis of 22 studies that addressed freshman weight gain.
The average weight gain was 3 pounds. A majority of students do gain weight and a more careful analysis stated that most gain 7 pounds. 1 out of 10 freshman gain 15 pounds. (Usually first semester)
What percentage of U.S. adults has diabetes?
1 out of _____ does not know they have diabetes.
1 out of 4
According to government data published in 2016, obesity rates have continued to rise among which two population groups?
Teenagers and women
Based on the latest estimate, ______% of women in the U.S. are obese.
The average age of diagnosis of diabetes is decreasing in the U.S. Why?
Obesity epidemic; seeing Type 2 diabetes in children now
What are health consequences of obesity besides Type 2 diabetes?
High cholesterol, heart disease, etc.
Today, the major causes of death in the United States are slowly-developing, lifestyle-related chronic diseases. What are the two leading causes of death in the U.S.?
Heart disease and cancer
According to Dr. Ralph Keeney, a Duke behavioral economist, how do personal decisions rank among the causes of premature death in the U.S.?
44.5% of premature deaths linked to personal decisions
How does the typical American diet differ from that consumed throughout most of human history?
Humans were hunter gatherers; Now the obesity epidemic is due to eating too many calories; our genes can't evolve fast enough to adjust to our diets
Despite the highest levels of health spending per capita, how does the U.S. rank in terms of life expectancy when compared with other countries?
What factors contribute to our disappointing health outcomes when compared with our peer nations?
Obesity epidemic; the way we spend money; we spend 2x the average on health insurance
A recent report in the Journal of the American Medical Association concluded that _______ has surpassed smoking as the leading cause of disease burden (disability and premature death) in the U.S.
Name a national public-private partnership that encourages Americans to eat more fruits and vegetables.
Name three health benefits from consuming a diet high in fruits and vegetables.
Cut cancer risk, maintain healthy weight, lower blood pressure, more fiber
Government guidelines recommend that adults eat _____ servings of fruits and vegetables each day.
How can Americans improve their fruit and vegetable choices?
Don't drown vegetables in fat and salt; mix up what fruits and veggies you eat
Why do the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans state that most fruit should come from whole fruits rather than juice?
Fruit juice is higher in calories, less filling, contains less fiber, and contains added sugar
Who is the target population of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans?
Healthy Americans above the age of 2
List highlights of the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Limits for ______ are gone; ______ limits remain. For the first time, sugar is limited to ______ person's daily calories.
Cholesterol; saturated fat; 10%
The 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend a daily limit of 2,300 milligrams of sodium. Do most Americans meet this limit?
90% of Americans DO NOT meet this limit, leaving 10% to meet the limit.
What are 4 health consequences of high sodium/salt intakes?
Increased blood pressure, enlarged heart muscle, heart disease stroke, osteoporosis, kidney disease, stomach cancer
According to the most recent national survey data presented in class, what is the number one source of sodium in the U.S. diet? Why is it challenging for Americans to limit their sodium intake?
Burgers, sandwiches, tacos
Over-salting food in restaurants; it isn't something we can control. You can add more but you can't get rid of it once it's on there.
Describe a recent Food and Drug Administration (FDA) initiative that is intended to lower sodium consumption.
Sodium reduction targets for restaurants and the food industry
What is the purpose of MyPlate, the most recent series of food guides?
Convey key messages of Dietary Guidelines to the public
What are the key health messages in MyPlate?
1/2 plate of fruits & vegetables, 1/2 of grains consumed to be whole grains, skim or 1% milk
What is the process used to determine the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for a nutrient?
Take the EAR (Estimated Average Requirement) and add a margin of safety to meet the needs of 97-98% of healthy people
What would happen if we set the RDA to equal the Estimated Average Requirement?
Would only meet needs of 50% of people
You analyze your diet for a 24-h period using Super Tracker. You discover that your estimated intake of Vitamin C for that day was only 75% of the RDA. How do you interpret this information?
Not deficient in Vitamin C. Why? You only analyzed one day of information, doesn't tell us everything.
Based on diet/body, you may only need 75% of daily value of Vitamin C.
The Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) are part of a set of nutrient intake standards known as Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). The DRIs include RDAs, Estimated Average Requirements (EARs), Adequate Intakes (AIs) and Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs). What is the intensed use of each?
EARs: Just as it sounds. An estimate of the average requirements a person needs
AIs: Way of alerting people of uncertainty; ex: Fiber
ULs: You could be getting too much of a nutrient
What types of claims are permitted on food labels?
Nutrient content claims, health claims, structure function claims
What claims are reviewed and authorized by the Food and Drug Administration?
Nutrient content claims and health claims
What is an example of a nutrient content claim?
"Excellent source of fiber"
Nutrient it is claiming = fiber
What is an example of a health claim?
"4 grams of soluble fiber from oatmeal daily in a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol may reduce the risk of heart disease"
Health it is claiming = reduce the risk of heart disease
What is an example of a structure function claim?
"Calcium builds strong bones"
Provide an example of a food label claim that would be prohibited by the Food and Drug Administration.
Vitamin Water saying their products "Promotes healthy functioning of joints" without any evidence
Serving sizes on the current Nutrition Facts label are often _________ than what people eat today.
What is the 5/20 rule?
A way to interpret nutrition facts
5% of DV is low; 20% of DV is high
What are the features of the new Nutrition Facts label?
Serving sizes will be updated to show how much we typically eat
Sets with similar terms
Nutritional Science Chapter 2
(Chapter 2) Guidelines for a Healthy Diet
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