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Archean crust-forming processes continued into the Proterozoic but

at a considerably reduced rate

Archean cratons served as

nuclei about which Proterozoic crust accreted

one large landmass that formed by Archean craton-forming


Laurentia consisted mostly of

North America and Greenland

major events in the Proterozoic evolution of Laurentia

an Early Proterozoic episode of amalgamation of cratons, Middle Proterozoic igneous activity, and the Middle Proterozoic Grenville orogeny and Midcontinent rift

by the Late Proterozoic, there were probably

three or more continents

the three continents of the Late Proterozoic

Laurasia, East Gondwana, West Gondwana

Laurasia consisted of

Laurentia and what is now Europe and most of Asia

East and West Gondwana may have

united in the latest Proterozoic to form Gondwana

Greenstone belts formed during the

Proterozoic but at a reduced rate

from their Archean counterparts, greenstone belts of the Proterozoic differ in


opiolite sequences mark

convergent plate margins

opliolite sequences are first well documented from

the Early Proterozoic

present-day style of plate tectonics seems to have been established during the

Early Proterozoic

Quartzite-carbonate-shale assemblages are known from

the Late Archean

Quartzite-carbonate-shale assemblages became common in

Proterozoic rocks

Quartzite-carbonate-shale assemblages in Proterozoic rocks were deposited on

passive continental margins and in intracratonic basins

occured during the Early and Late Proterozoic

widespread glaciation

through the Proterozoic, the atmosphere became

progressively richer in free oxygen

largely responsible for oxygenation of the atmosphere in the Proterozoic

photosynthesizing cyanobacteria

besided photosynthesizing cyanobacteria, this also contributed some oxygen

photochemical dissociation of water vapor

when were most of the world's iron ores deposited as banded iron formation

2.5 to 2.0 billion years ago

first continental beds were deposited

1.8 billion years ago

widespread occurrence of oxidized iron in sedimentay rocks indicates

an oxidizing atmosphere

only known life-forms from the Early Proterozoic

unicellular prokaryotes

first appeared during the Middle Proterozoic

eukaryotic cells

oldest fossils of multicellular organisms are

carbonaceous impressions, probably of algae, in rocks 1 billion and 700 million years old

Late Proterozoic Ediacaran faunas include

the oldest well-documented animal fossils other than burrows

in the Late Proterozoic, animals were


animals of the Late Proterozoic were all


Late Proterozoic animals were soft bodied

fossils are not common in the Late Proterozoic because

most of the world's iron ore production is from

Proterozoic banded iron formations

other important resources of the Proterozoic

nickel, platinum, and a variety of materials mined from pegmatites

oldest well-documented fossil animal occur in the

Ediacaran fauna

Proterozoic Eon began

2.5 billion years ago

large landmass consisting mostly of North America and Greenland the formed during the Proterozoic


widespread Middle Proterozoic igneous rocks consist mostly of

ash flow deposits and plutons

last major North American orogen to for during the Proterozoic was teh

Greenville orogen

thick accumulations of basaltic lava flows forming extensive lava plateaus occur in the

Midcontinent rift

Archean and Proterozoic greenstone belt rocks are


and exception to Archean and Proterozoic greenstone belt rocks' similarity is that

Proterozoic contain little or no ultramafic rock

most common associations of Proterozoic rocks are


lithified glacial deposits


banded iron formations


BIFs were deposited during

Early Proterozoic

presence of red beds during the Proterozoic indicates

the atmosphere contained some free oxygen

most important event in the evolution of life during the Proterozoic was the appearance of

eukaryotic cells

evidence for the origin of eukaryotics cells comes from the study of

present-day organisms

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