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MCAT Bio: The Cardiovascular System (7)
Terms in this set (70)
The cardiovascular system consists of 3 things:
1) a muscular 4-chambered heart
2) blood vessels
The heart is composed of _______ muscle and supports 2 different circulations: the ____________ circulation and the _________ circulation
cardiac muscle; the pulmonary circulation and systemic circulation
Each side of the heart consists of a(n) _______ and ________
atrium and ventricle
The atria are separated from the ventricles by the _________ ______________
(_____ on the right, _______ (_______) on the left)
The atria are separated from the ventricles by the atrioventricular valves- tricuspid (right), mitral/bicuspid (left)
The ventricles are separated from the vasculature by the ______ _________ (_______ on the right, ______ on the left)
The ventricles are separated from the vasculature by the semilunar valves- pulmonary (right), aortic (left)
Fill in the valves: pathway of blood
R atrium --- ___________ valve ---> R ventricle --- ____________ valve ---> pulmonary artery ---> lungs --> pulmonary veins --> L atrium --- _________ valve ---> L ventricle --- ___________ valve ---> aorta --> arteries ---> arterioles ---> capillaries ---> venules ---> veins ---> venae cavae ---> R atrium
R atrium --- tricuspid valve ---> R ventricle --- pulmonary valve ---> pulmonary artery ---> lungs --> pulmonary veins --> L atrium --- mitral valve ---> L ventricle --- aortic valve ---> aorta --> arteries ---> arterioles ---> capillaries ---> venules ---> veins ---> venae cavae ---> R atrium
The left side of the heart contains (less/more) muscle than the right side because the (pulmonary/systemic) circulation has much (higher/lower) resistance and (higher/lower) pressure
The left side of the heart contains more muscle than the right because the systemic circulation has much higher resistance and pressure
Electrical conduction of the heart starts at the ____________ node and then goes to the _______ node, then _________, then __________
SA (sinoatrial) node --> AV (atrioventricular) node --> bundle of his --> purkinje fibers
Systole refers to the period during ventricular (contraction/relaxation) when the _____ valves are closed
Systole refers to the period during ventricular contraction when the AV valves are closed
Diastole refers to the period during ventricular (contraction/relaxation) when the _____ valves are closed
relaxation; semilunar valves
Cardiac output is the product of _______ and _______
CO = heart rate x stroke volume
The __________ nervous system increases HR and contractility.
The _________ nervous system decreases HR
The vasculature consists of _____ (3)
arteries, veins, capillaries
Arteries are (thin/thick), muscular structures with __________ (quality) that allows for _____ and helps to propel blood forward within the system
Arteries are thick muscular structures with elasticity that allows for recoil
Small muscular arteries are called __________
Capillaries have walls that are ___ cell(s) thick. They are the site of ______ and _____ exchange
1 cell thick; site of gas and solute exchange
Veins are (elastic/inelastic), (thin/thick) walled structures that transport blood to the (heart/lungs).
inelastic; thin; heart
True or false: veins are able to stretch and recoil
yes, they can stretch to accommodate large volumes of blood. they cannot recoil.
Veins are compressed by surrounding ________ muscles and have _________s to maintain one-way flow.
skeletal muscles; valves
Small veins are called _______
A _________ system is one in which blood passes through __#__ capillary bed(s) in (series/parallel)
A portal system is one in which blood passes through 2 capillary beds in series
Name three portal systems
1) hepatic portal system
2) hypophyseal portal system
3) renal portal system
In the hepatic portal system, blood travels from the ______(structure) capillary beds to the _______ (organ) capillary beds via the ______________ ________ ________
gut --> liver via the hepatic portal vein
In the hypophyseal portal system, blood travels from the __________ to the _____________
hypothalamus --> anterior pituitary
In the renal portal system, blood travels from the _________ to the ___________ through an ___________ ___________
glomerulus --> vasa recta through an efferent arteriol
Blood is composed of _____ and ______
cells and plasma
Plasma is an aqueous mixture of ______, _____, ______, ______, ______ (5)
nutrients, salts, respiratory gases, hormones, and blood proteins
What is another name for red blood cells
Erythrocytes have which of the following:
What does hematocrit measure?
the percentage of blood composed of erythrocytes
What are white blood cells called
Leukocytes are formed in the __________
Leukocytes come in 2 types; name them
granular and agranular
Name 3 examples of granular leukocytes. They play a role in (specific/nonspecific) immunity
neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils. They play a role in nonspecific immunity
Name 2 agranular leukocytes. They play a role in (specific/nonspecific) immunity
lymphocytes, monocytes. They play a role in specific immunity
What is another name for platelets
What are thrombocytes and what are they made from, what are they required for?
Thrombocytes are cell fragments from megakaryocytes that are required for coagulation
What are 4 blood surface antigens?
A, B, O and Rh (D)
The (A/B/O) allele(s) are codominant while the (A/B/O) allele is recessive
A,B are codominant; O is recessive
Another name for A, B and O?
IA, IB, i
An individual (does/does not) have antibodies for the AB alleles they don't have
they DO have the antibodies for the AB alleles they don't have; probably got them from the gut flora?
A (+/-) Rh factor is dominant. An Rh (+/-) person will only create anti Rh antibodies after exposure to Rh (+/-) blood.
A + Rh factor is dominant. An Rh - person will only create anti-Rh antibodies after exposure to Rh+ blood.
Blood pressure is measured as:
the force per unit area that is exerted on the walls of blood vessels by blood.
There are two components of blood pressure, what are they?
systolic and diastolic components
What is the balance that blood pressure has to maintain? Ex. what happens if it is too high/low?
it has to be high enough to overcome the resistance created by arterioles and capillaries, but low enough to avoid damaging the vasculature and surrounding structures.
Blood pressure can be measured using a ________________
BP is maintained by ____________ and _____________ (receptor) reflexes.
Baroreceptor and chemoreceptor
Low blood pressure promotes ____________ and _________(aka) release (2 hormones)
Aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone (ADH or Vasopressin)
High blood osmolarity promotes _____ release (hormone)
High blood pressure promotes __________ release (hormone)
ANP- atrial natriuretic peptide
What are the 2 starling forces?
hydrostatic pressure and osmotic/oncotic pressure
Hydrostatic pressure is what?
the pressure of the fluid within the blood vessel
Osmotic pressure is what kind of pressure? What does it do?
Osmotic pressure is the "sucking" pressure drawing water towards to the solutes.
Oncotic pressure is osmotic pressure due to _________
Hydrostatic pressure forces fluid out at the _____________ end of a capillary bed; oncotic pressure draws it back in at the _________ end
arteriolar end; venule end
Oxygen is carried by hemoglobin, which exhibits _______ _________ (phenomenon)
In the lungs, there is a (high/low) partial pressure of oxygen, resulting in (loading/unloading) of O2 onto/from hemoglobin
In tissues, there is a (high/low) pp of O2, resulting in the (leading/unloading) of O2 (onto/from) hemoglobin
CO2 is largely carried in the blood in the form of __________ ________
Carbonic acid is composed of ______ and ________
bicarbonate and hydrogen ions
CO2 is (polar/nonpolar) and (soluble/not soluble).
Bicarbonate is (polar/nonpolar) and (soluble/not soluble).
Hydrogen ions are (polar/nonpolar) and (soluble/not soluble).
Carbonic acid is (polar/nonpolar) and (soluble/not soluble).
CO2- nonpolar, not soluble
Bicarbonate- polar, highly soluble
H+ ions- polar, highly soluble
Carbonic acid- polar, highly soluble
The curve the shows the relationship between hemoglobin and it's affinity for O2 is called ________
oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve
can cause a RIGHT shift in the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve, reflecting a(n) (increased/decreased) affinity for oxygen.
can cause a RIGHT shift in the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve, reflecting a decreased affinity for oxygen.
can cause a LEFT shift in the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve, reflecting a(n) (increased/decreased) affinity for oxygen.
can cause a LEFT shift in the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve, reflecting an increased affinity for oxygen.
In fetal hemoglobin, there is a _________ shift compared to adult hemoglobin
What 3 things are carried in the bloodstream to tissues for use or disposal?
Nutrients, wastes, and hormones
Coagulation results fro an __________ cascade
When the endothelial lining of a blood vessel is damaged, the _______ and _________ are exposed. This results in a cascade of events known as the ______ __________, ultimately resulting in the formation of a ______ over the damaged area.
When the endothelial lining of a blood vessel is damaged, the underlying collagen and tissue factor are exposed. This results in a cascade of events known as the coagulation cascade, ultimately resulting in the formation of a clot over the damaged area.
Platelets bind to the ________ and are stabilized by _________, which is activated by __________
Platelets bind to the collagen and are stabilized by fibrin, which is activated by thrombin
Clots can be broken down by ________
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