system that described economic and political relations between landlords and their peasant laborers during the Middle Ages; involved a hierarchy of reciprocal obligations that exchanged labor or rents for access to land.
a legal document listing the privileges of the towns people; people ruled themselves with the charter
peasants on a manor; they were bound to the land; they were not slaves who could be bought and sold—still they were not free
type of European architecture that developed in the Middle Ages, characterized by west fronts with ornate portals, geometric relationships, flying buttresses, and ribbed vaulting
Massive walls, stone arches, and exterior decoration/sculpture. Borrowed Roman architectural aesthetic features.
served as regent of France, abbot of Saint-Denis and was responsible for its rebuilding. Began the Gothic Architecture.
long rounded ceilings found in romanesque churches. These ceilings needed huge pillars and thick walls to hold them up. Windows were small and set back, they let in little light
Bernard of Clairvaux
Protested against cathedrals, said that the Church clothed the cathedrals with gold yet ignored the naked.
supports that helped hold up church walls from the outside, allowing for much higher ceilings and an interior that had no columns
the group of people who were responsible to gather and record finances, hire workers and keep records of the cathedral building process and progress
Post and lintel
a structure consisting of vertical beams (posts) supporting a horizontal beam (lintel)
Period during 11th and 12th centuries in western Europe, characterized by influence and interpretation of Roman architecture.
the passage (walkway) around the apse in a church or around the central space in a central-plan church
either of the two side parts of a cross-shaped church that are at an angle of 90 degrees to the main part
The area of the church between a transept and main apse. it is the area where the service is sung and clergy may stand, and the main or high altar is located.
A recess, usually semicircular, in the wall of a Roman basilica or at the east end of a church.
The topmost zone of a wall with windows in a basilica extending above the aisle roofs. Provides direct light into the central interior space (the nave).
in church architecture, the pillar or center post supporting the lintel in the middle of the doorway.
an order of nuns in the Roman Catholic Church. It was the second Franciscan order to be established
A male member of the Roman Catholic order; religious man who lived in poverty performing religious services; survived on the charity of others. From the Italian word for "brother"
This member of a guild could own his own shop and tools, as well as employ Journeymen and Apprentices.
apprentices became this, worked for wages for other masters, became masters, expected to produce a masterpiece
a medieval tale in eight-syllable verse. Humorous, often bawdy, it frequently satirizes women and the clergy. Adaptations of it appear in several of Geoffrey Chaucer's tales, including those of the Miller, the Reeve, the Friar, the Summoner, and the Merchant
Narrative poem, usually about adventure or romance, sung to popular melodies, made up of several stanzas that do not repeat in form or follow a set pattern
Something that stands for something else, especially a material object used to represent something else.
Thomas Aquinas' view, which he adapted from Aristotle. Holds that we are two things: form and matter. The soul is the "form" of the body. Both the soul and the body are good; the soul is not simply a good thing "trapped" inside of a bad body.
Five Pointed Star: 5 senses, 5 finger, 5 wounds of Christ, 5 joys of Mary, 5 virtues (generosity, fellowship, charity, chastity, courtesy)
Association of traders who basically ran the town. Not allowed to get rich on your own.
Scenic structure used in medieval drama to indicate the locale or scene of the action; areas inside the church used for performing liturgical drama
the neutral acting area of a stage, could assume the scenic identity of the mansion that was being used
Stage machinery of the medieval theatre. The secrets were managed by the Master of Secrets. Special effects, and special stage elements.
The notational signs (notes) of the Middles Ages that were used for writing down plainsong or chant.
Hildegard of Bingen
Abbess of a religious house in Western Germany; one of first important women composers and contributor to Gregorian chant.
originally a canon at the Notre Dame cathedral, became a priest, and was affiliated with the monastery of St. Victor. As a poet, he wrote a paraphrase of the first eight books of the Bible in verse and several shorter works. Contributed to the Magnus Liber Organi et Graduali
Magnus liber organi et graduali refers to him as a master. Used discant clausulae on pieces in the Organi et Graduali by replacing old-fashioned pieces in it written by Leoninus with newer, discant style music
Rationally informed activity that arises from human nature and is intent upon some external goal.
Rationally informed activity that arises from human nature and is intent upon knowledge for its own sake.
The speaker is part of the fictional creation, invented for the author's particular purposes in a given literary work.
Muslim scholar who strongly influenced medieval Christian scholars with his writings on Aristotle
Order of Preachers
1220, Dominicans, stressed preaching and education. Instrumental in the formation of medieval universities