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Humanities Final Exam

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Manorialism
system that described economic and political relations between landlords and their peasant laborers during the Middle Ages; involved a hierarchy of reciprocal obligations that exchanged labor or rents for access to land.
Town Charter
a legal document listing the privileges of the towns people; people ruled themselves with the charter
Cathedral
A bishop's church.
Serf
peasants on a manor; they were bound to the land; they were not slaves who could be bought and sold—still they were not free
Monastery
A community in which monks lead lives devoted to religion.
Gothic Style
type of European architecture that developed in the Middle Ages, characterized by west fronts with ornate portals, geometric relationships, flying buttresses, and ribbed vaulting
Romanesque Style
Massive walls, stone arches, and exterior decoration/sculpture. Borrowed Roman architectural aesthetic features.
Abbot Suger
served as regent of France, abbot of Saint-Denis and was responsible for its rebuilding. Began the Gothic Architecture.
Abbey of St. Denis
Was rebuilt by Abbot Suger
Ribbed vaults
Lighter and stronger than barrel vaults.
Barrel vaults
long rounded ceilings found in romanesque churches. These ceilings needed huge pillars and thick walls to hold them up. Windows were small and set back, they let in little light
Bernard of Clairvaux
Protested against cathedrals, said that the Church clothed the cathedrals with gold yet ignored the naked.
Flying buttress
supports that helped hold up church walls from the outside, allowing for much higher ceilings and an interior that had no columns
Cathedral Chapter
the group of people who were responsible to gather and record finances, hire workers and keep records of the cathedral building process and progress
Post and lintel
a structure consisting of vertical beams (posts) supporting a horizontal beam (lintel)
Groin vault
formed at the point at which 2 barrel vaults intersect at right angles
Romanesque Period
Period during 11th and 12th centuries in western Europe, characterized by influence and interpretation of Roman architecture.
Gothic Period
12th to 14th centuries, characterized by Gothic style architecture.
Ribbed Groin Vault
Allowed for efficient channeling of weight in Medieval Churches
Ile-de-France
Area of France around Paris. Area ruled directly by the King of France.
Sancta Camisia
Relic said to have been worn by the Virgin Mary.
Arcade
A series of barrel vaults
Ambulatory
the passage (walkway) around the apse in a church or around the central space in a central-plan church
Nave
the central area of a church
Side Aisle
smaller aisles to the side of the nave
Transept
either of the two side parts of a cross-shaped church that are at an angle of 90 degrees to the main part
Crossing
the space in a cruciform church formed by the intersection of the nave and the transept
Choir
The area of the church between a transept and main apse. it is the area where the service is sung and clergy may stand, and the main or high altar is located.
Apse
A recess, usually semicircular, in the wall of a Roman basilica or at the east end of a church.
Radiating Chapel
semicircular chapel cutout of the wall of a church, usually for relic display
Gallery
the second story of a church, placed over the side aisles and below the clerestory
Clerestory
The topmost zone of a wall with windows in a basilica extending above the aisle roofs. Provides direct light into the central interior space (the nave).
Flying Buttress
a buttress that stands apart from the main structure and connected to it by an arch
Trumeau
in church architecture, the pillar or center post supporting the lintel in the middle of the doorway.
Lintel
horizontal beam above the doorway
Typanum
Relief/semicircular zone above the lintel of the main portal that depicts Jesus scenes
Umbria
Earliest settlers of Assisi
majores
The noble class.
Etruscans
Later conquered Umbrians
Minores
Common folk
Villein
Farm laborers, merchants, craftsmen. Like a serf, except had freedom.
Pietro Bernardone
Saint Francis' father
Pica Bernardone
Saint Francis' mother
Simony
Buying/selling of church offices
Poor Clares
an order of nuns in the Roman Catholic Church. It was the second Franciscan order to be established
Third Order
An order of Franciscan friars.
Friar
A male member of the Roman Catholic order; religious man who lived in poverty performing religious services; survived on the charity of others. From the Italian word for "brother"
Medicant
a beggar/ depending upon alms for a living; practicing begging
Canticle of All Creatures
Francis' praise of creation
Cathari
A Christian religious sect that has dualistic and gnostic elements.
Hagiography
biography of a saint that is worshiping or idealizing
Stigmata
Marks resembling the wounds on the crucified body of Christ
Usary
Charging interest on loans (church didn't allow it.)
Master
This member of a guild could own his own shop and tools, as well as employ Journeymen and Apprentices.
Apprentice
Young person learning a trade from a master
Journeymen
apprentices became this, worked for wages for other masters, became masters, expected to produce a masterpiece
Eleanor of Aquitaine
Wife of Henry II
Ovid
Author of Metamorphoses, Ars amatoria, and Remedia amoris
Fabliau
a medieval tale in eight-syllable verse. Humorous, often bawdy, it frequently satirizes women and the clergy. Adaptations of it appear in several of Geoffrey Chaucer's tales, including those of the Miller, the Reeve, the Friar, the Summoner, and the Merchant
Lai
Narrative poem, usually about adventure or romance, sung to popular melodies, made up of several stanzas that do not repeat in form or follow a set pattern
Imagery
description that appeals to the senses (sight, sound, smell, touch, taste)
Personification
The attribution of human characteristics to inanimate objects or abstract notions
Symbol
Something that stands for something else, especially a material object used to represent something else.
Simile
A comparison using comparative terms such as "like" or "as"
Metaphor
An implied comparison, without using "like" or "as"
Poietes
Poet comes from this word, means maker or creator.
Hylomorphism
Thomas Aquinas' view, which he adapted from Aristotle. Holds that we are two things: form and matter. The soul is the "form" of the body. Both the soul and the body are good; the soul is not simply a good thing "trapped" inside of a bad body.
Alliteration
Repetition of initial consonant sounds
Bob & Wheel
End rhyme form of the poem Gawain and the Green Knight
Caesura
An audible pause or break within a line of poetry.
Pentangle
Five Pointed Star: 5 senses, 5 finger, 5 wounds of Christ, 5 joys of Mary, 5 virtues (generosity, fellowship, charity, chastity, courtesy)
Geoffrey Chaucer
author of the Miller's Tale
Senex amans
Stock character: Old man who married a woman who is way too young for him.
Sely
Silly
Hende
Handy
Joly
Jolly (also pretty)
Vernacular
The everyday speech of the people (as distinguished from literary language)
Anachronism
something presented at a time when it could not have existed or occurred
Pageant wagon
Stage that is wheeled around, used in professional staging
Craft Guild
Group of tradesmen or craftsmen engaged in the same occupation joined together.
Merchant Guild
Association of traders who basically ran the town. Not allowed to get rich on your own.
Mansion
Scenic structure used in medieval drama to indicate the locale or scene of the action; areas inside the church used for performing liturgical drama
Platea
the neutral acting area of a stage, could assume the scenic identity of the mansion that was being used
Hell's Mouth
In plays, this was the entrance to hell. Usually highly decorated.
Secrets
Stage machinery of the medieval theatre. The secrets were managed by the Master of Secrets. Special effects, and special stage elements.
Monophony
Single-voiced music without accompaniment
Polyphony
Music arranged in parts for several voices or instruments
Syllabic
One note for one syllable.
Melismatic
Multiple notes for one syllable.
Neumes
The notational signs (notes) of the Middles Ages that were used for writing down plainsong or chant.
Hildegard of Bingen
Abbess of a religious house in Western Germany; one of first important women composers and contributor to Gregorian chant.
Magnus Liber Organi
Big Book of Religious Music
Proper of the Mass
The sections of the Mass that are sung to texts that vary each feast day.
Leoninus
originally a canon at the Notre Dame cathedral, became a priest, and was affiliated with the monastery of St. Victor. As a poet, he wrote a paraphrase of the first eight books of the Bible in verse and several shorter works. Contributed to the Magnus Liber Organi et Graduali
Perotinus
Magnus liber organi et graduali refers to him as a master. Used discant clausulae on pieces in the Organi et Graduali by replacing old-fashioned pieces in it written by Leoninus with newer, discant style music
Guillaume de Machaut
Great French poet and composer. One of the most important composers
Kyrie
Lord, Have Mercy
Gloria
Glory to God in the Highest
Credo
I believe in one God
Sanctus
Holy, holy, holy Lord God of Hosts
Agnus Dei
Lamb of God
Tenor
adult male voice between baritone and alto. Held the chant line
Superius
The top voice of a four-voice texture. (soprano)
Contratenor altus
Alto, between superius and tenor.
Contratenor bassus
Below the tenor, bass voice, lowest.
Anselm
Author of Prologion
Inerius
Teacher at the University of Bologna who taught Roman law
Gratian
Scholar of canon law (Church law)
Universitas
Latin word for guild. "Guild of Students"
Trivium
First part of liberal arts studies. 3 parts: grammar, rhetoric, and logic.
Quadrivium
Second part of liberal arts studies. 4 parts: arithmetic, astronomy, geometry, music.
Active Life
Rationally informed activity that arises from human nature and is intent upon some external goal.
Contemplative Life
Rationally informed activity that arises from human nature and is intent upon knowledge for its own sake.
Expanding mind
Increasing knowledge expands interests.
Contracting mind
Current interests limit the scope of future knowledge.
Persona
The speaker is part of the fictional creation, invented for the author's particular purposes in a given literary work.
Allegory
A narrative that serves as an extended metaphor.
University of Bologna
First university. It was a school of law.
University of Paris
One of the first universities. Abelard informally founded it.
Guibert of Nogent
A Monk's Confession
Theophilus
On a Divers Arts, The Treatise of Theophilus
Bonaventure
The Life of St. Francis
Gregario Dati
The Diary of Gregario Dati
Marie de France
Bisclavret and Laustic
Boethius
The De Institutione Musica
Isidore of Seville
The Etymologiarum
Eadmer
Life of Anselm
Christine de Pisan
The Book of the City of Ladies
Romance of the Rose
Medieval French poem styled as an allegorical dream vision
Averroes
Muslim scholar who strongly influenced medieval Christian scholars with his writings on Aristotle
Order of Preachers
1220, Dominicans, stressed preaching and education. Instrumental in the formation of medieval universities
St. Dominic
He established an order which combined the rule of poverty and the practice of mendicancy with careful study and informed preaching. (1170-1221)