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psyc 230 visual imagery
Terms in this set (14)
Shepard & Metzler Mental Rotation Study
as rotation degrees increase, longer it took to respond; results showed that both mental and perceptual images both involve spatial representation of the stimulus.
subjects create mental images and then scan them in their minds
Rosslyn's mental scanning experiments
asked subjects to memorize a picture of an object, such as the boat pictured, and then to create a mental image of the picture and to focus on one part of the boat, such as the anchor. they were then asked to look for another part of the boat, such as the motor, and to press the "true" button when they found this part or the "false" button when they couldn't find it.
reasoned that if imagery, like perception, is spatial, then it should take longer for subjects to find parts of the boat that are located farther than the initial point of focus
Zenon Pylyshyn--imagery debate, propositional mechanisms
proposed another explanation, debating whether mental imagery is based on spatial mechanisms, such as those involved in perception, or on mechanisms related to language, called ______ _____.
Pylyshyn disagreed. saying that just because we experience imagery as spatial, that doesn't mean that the underlying representation is spatial. considered an epiphenomenon...proposed a propositional representation
Kosslyn supported the idea that the mechanism responsible for imagery involves a spatial representation --a representation in which different parts of an image can be described as corresponding to specific locations in space.
something that accompanies the real mechanism but is not actually part of the mechanism.
Fink and Pinker experiment
used novel stimuli so there was no pre-existing mental map. longer rxn time when greater distance between arrow and dot, in which they were to determine whether or not a dot had been present where the arrow was indicating.
Kosslyn then researched whether the relationship between viewing distance and the ability to perceive details also occurs for mental images
asked subjects to imagine 2 animals, such as an elephant and a rabbit next to each other, the then posed questions such as "does the rabbit have whiskers?" when he repeated this procedure but told participants that the rabbit was next to a fly. the subjects answered the questions about the rabbit more rapidly when it filled more of their visual field.
also asked them to do a mental walk test, in which they were asked to mentally imagine themselves walking toward their mental image. their task was to estimate how far away they were from the animal when they began to experience "overflow"--when the image filled the visual field or when its edges started to become fuzzy.
subjects had to move closer for small animals than for larger animals.
FURTHER EVIDENCE THAT MENTAL IMAGES ARE SPATIAL, JUST LIKE PERCEPTION
interactions of imagery and perception
rationale behind approach=if imagery affects perception, or perception affects imagery, this means that imagery and perception both have access to the same mechanisms.
asked subjects to "project" visual images of common objects onto a screen, and then to describe these images. The images did not know that Perky was back-projecting a very dim image of this object on the screen. thus, when the subjects were asked to create a mental scene of a banana, Perky projected a banana onto the screen.
building of the work of Perky...
instructed her participants to imagine either the letter H or T on a screen. once they had a clear image, they pressed a button that caused 2 squares to flash, one after the other. one of the squares contained target letter, which was either H or T. the subjects; task was to indicate whether the letter was in the first square or second square.
the target letter was detected more accurately when the subject had been imagining the same letter rather than the different letter.
imagery and the brain
imagery neurons fire to the same stimulus as perceptual neurons. overlap in brain activity.
brain more so activated in the occipital area when exposed to visual stimulus. perception activates greater areas of the occipital cortex, whereas imagery
more of an overlap of activation in the frontal regions of the brain.
method of loci
memory and visual imagery
what are the 2 keys of effective imagery(as discussed in an athletic context)
the inability to create visual imagery
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