Chapter 28: Stress and Anxiety
Terms in this set (46)
Anticipation of harm or that something unpleasant or is a source of danger is imminent. Causes fear, anxiety, and stress.
Emotional outcome to a threat. Feeling of dread and apprehension. Real or imagines to an identifiable cause. Can be rational or irrational.
Emotional state resulting from threat to biological integrity or self esteem. Subjective feelings of uneasiness, worry, apprehension, nervousness, or dread. Person may experience nausea, sweating, or trembling. Threat of danger is real or imagines, situational or generalized. Can be mind, severe, or chronic.
Not necessarily negative effect; Ex: Feeling of uneasiness caused by a deadline for school work approaching. (motivation)
Experience decreased function. May not incorporate usual responses (crisis). Individual's overall effectiveness/adaptation diminishes.
Perception is distorted. Decreased memory, reasoning, attention, ability to learn. May lead to panic.
Unrealistic, uncontrollable and excessive worry for the majority of days over 6 months.
Symptoms of persistent anxiety
Any disturbance in a person's normal balanced state
An experience in which a person is exposed through a stimulus or stressor
A physical, emotional, or psychological demand that could lead to growth or overwhelms a person and leads to illness.
If severe or continuous it may effect disease, suppress our immune system, worsen an asthma attack, eventually lead to heart disease.
Moderate amounts of stress are needed to function but...
1. situational factors
2. maturational factors
3. sociocultural factors
3 Kinds of stress
Type of stress: loss of job
Type of stress: growth/ development, living at URI and transitioning into adult hood
Type of stress: poverty, natural disasters
stress prone personality
Tendency to overplay each day, polyphasic thinking, the need to win. Persistent desire for advancement or recognition. Impatience with delay or interruptions. Involvement in multiple projects with many deadlines. Chronic sense of time urgency. Excessive competitive drive and a compulsion to over work.
1. medulla oglongata
2. reticular formairotn
3. pituitary gland
3 organs in the body that control the response of the body to a stressor
fight or flight
Activation of our sympathetic nervous system; adrenaline
- Increased mental activity
- dilated pupils
- increased amount of glucose (sugar-energy)
- increased heart and breathing rate
- increased blood flow to muscles
Physical symptoms caused by stress (fight or flight)
1. alarm reaction (fight or flight)
2. resistance stage
3. exhaustion stage
3 stages of General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
Fight or flight stage in General Adaptation Syndrome
Stage within General Adaptation Syndrome where the body calm an returns to normal
Stage within General Adaptation Syndrome where the body can't cope and shuts down
General Adaptation Syndrome
Three stage reaction to stress
Evaluating an event for its personal meaning related to stress, looking at the situation and how it affects the person.
Evaluating one's possible coping strategies when confronted with a stressor, what am I going to do about it?
adaptation or disease
Stress either results in ____ or in ____
Possible effect of stress that allows for growth and development and effective responses to changed and challenges in every day life.
Conscious, learned, purposeful ways of responding to a threat
ego defense mechanisms
Regulate emotional distress an thus give a person protection from anxiety and stress
Ego defense mechanisms
Ego defense mechanism: Making up for a deficiency in one aspect of self-image by strongly emphasizing a feature considered an asset. (ex: a person who is a poor communicator relies on organizational skills)
Ego defense mechanism: Unconsciously repressing an anxiety-producing emotional conflict and transforming it into nonorganic systems (ex: difficulty sleeping, loss of appetite)
Ego defense mechanism: Avoiding emotional conflicts by refusing to consciously acknowledge anything that causes intolerable emotional pain (ex: a person refuses to discuss or acknowledge a personal loss)
Ego defense mechanism: Transferring emotions, ideas, or wishes, from a stressful situation to a less anxiety-producing substitute (ex: person transfers anger over an interpersonal conflict to a malfunctioning computer)
Ego defense mechanism: Patterning behavior after that of another person and assuming that person's qualities, characteristics, and actions
Ego defense mechanism: Experiencing a subjective sense of numbing and a reduced awareness of one's surroundings
Ego defense mechanism: Coping with a stressor through actions and behaviors associated with an earlier developmental period
Nursing process (ADPIE)
Nursing process: important to see situation and level of stress through client's eyes. Analyze client's perception of the event available supports and what he or she actually does when there is a problem he or she can't immediately solve.
Nursing process: Nurse making an educated judgment about a potential or actual health problem with a patient.
Nursing process: Develop goals and outcomes (such as psychological adjustment to a life change) with patient and maybe family. Select nursing interventions to promote adaptation to stress. Consult mental health providers, occupational therapists, and pastoral care professionals.
Nursing process: Coping strategies- previously used or new ones. Three primary modes for stress management- decrease the stress producing situation. Increase resistance to stress. Learn skills the reduce the physiological response.
Nursing process: Determine if changes in care promoted the patients adaptation to stress. Ask client about sleep patterns, appetite, ability to concentrate. Ask about coping strategies they are using. Are they safe? Ask about the coping strategies and how effective they were. Engage the patient as a partner in health care.