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they lymphatic system is a: a) two-way system that transports lymph to and from the heart b) two-way system that transports lymph to and from lungs c) one-way system that transports lymph away from the heart to the to the tissues d) one-way system that transports lymph towards the heart e) multidirectional system, depending on the tissue it serves


flap-like valves at the ends of lymphatic vessels open when: a) interstitial tissue pressure is higher than lymphatic pressure b) lymphatic pressure is higher that interstitial tissue pressure c) sympathetic nervous system is firing d) parasympathetic nervous system is firing e) chordae tendinae contract


which of the following is NOT found in lymph: a) water b) cell debris c) bacterial cells d) plasma proteins e) keratin


Peyer's Patches are found in the: a) small intestines b) spleen c) heart d) lungs e) kidneys


MALT is the study of the lymphatic system stands for: a) mouse-antigenic lymphoid tissue b) mouse-antibody lymphoid tissue c) mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue d) mucosa-antigenic lymphocytic T-cell e) mucosa-antibody leukocytic tissue


which of the following is an example of a first line of defense when a person's hand comes into contact with a contaminated nail? a) plasma cells become B cells b) B cells become plasma cells c) acidic secretion from the skin kills bacteria d) cytotoxic T cells kill infected cells e) neutrophils are attracted to point of contact by chemotaxis


the redness and heat that occurs during an inflammatory response is due to: a) the presence of carotenoid pigments b) increased blood flow to the region c) increase in thermostat set point d) the formation of antibodies at site of injury e) increased production of melanin


Which of the following cell types is a lymphocyte: a) macrophage b) histamine c) fibrin d) neutrophil e) cytotoxic T cell


antibodies are the essential players of: a) Humoral immunity b) cell-mediated immunity c) complement fixation d) surface membrane barriers e) phagocytosis


in the humoral response, clonal selection means: a) generating a clone of a human being b) the formation of a group of identical B lymphocytes c) the formation of a group of identical macrophages d) selecting antibodies for research purposes e) selecting the appropriate chains to make an antibody


Which of the following is NOT true about antibodies: a) they are produced by plasma cells b) hey bind to and inactivate their specific antigens c) they have one light chain and one heavy chain per molecule d) they are also known as immunoglobulins e) they are protein in nature


pus contains all of the following except: a) broken down tissue cells b) dead pathogens c) monoclonal antibodies d) living pathogens e) dead or dying neutrophils


which part of the antibody molecule is responsible for specific antigen-binding? a) disulfide bonds b) constant region of the light chains only c) constant regions of both heavy and light chains d) variable regions of light chains only e) variable regions of both heavy and light chains


the transplant of pig liver into a human being would be an example of a/an: a) autograft b) isograft c) allograft d) xenograft e) exograft


a person who has T lymphocytes that are incompetent in distinguishing between self and non-self would likely suffer from: a) immunodeficient b) AIDS c) chronic anaphylactic shock d) an autoimmune disease e) complement fixation


which of the following correctly describes the function of helper T cells? a) stimulates the formation of cytotoxic T cells b) produces antibodies c) engulfs bacteria d) suppresses the immune response e) presents foreign antigen on its surface


which of the following correctly describes the function of macrophages: a) produces antibodies b) fixes complement c) "remembers" an antigen-antibody agglutination d) precipitates foreign particles after antigen-antibody agglutination e) engulfs foreign particles and presents their antigens on the cell surface


the biological name for the antibody molecule is: a) hemoglobin b) immunoglobulin c) interferons d) lymphokines e) kinins


a secondary humoral response usually progresses ____________ the primary humoral response: a) at the same rate as b) slower than c) faster than d) less efficiently than e) in more non-specific manner than


B lymphocytes become immunocompetent in the: a) bone marrow b) thymus c) spleen d) blood plasma e) tonsils


the passing of the mother's antibodies via the placenta to the fetus is an example of: a) natural active immunity b) artificial active immunity c) natural passive immunity d) artificial passive immunity e) natural immunosuppression


in which of the following cases is immunological memory likely to occur? a) a person gets an injection of IgG b) a baby feeds on her mother's breast milk c) stomach acid kills bacteria from the food ingested d) a person eats animal products containing antibiotics e) a person recovers from chicken pox


Which of the following diseases is likely the result of an autoimmune disorder? a) arteriosclerosis b) rheumatoid arthritis c) AIDS d) SCID (severe-combined immunodeficiency disease) e) anaphylactic shock


The main function of suppressor T cells is to suppress: a) bacterial cell division b) viral replication c) the action of macrophages d) T and B cell activity e) hematopoiesis


Which of the following correctly distinguishes T cells from B cells: a) T cells do NOT bind to free antigens b) T cells only bind to free agents c) T cells produce antibodies d) T cells do NOT form memory cells e) T cells are formed in the thymus


the _______ returns lymph fluid from the left side of the head and neck as well as the chest, abdomen, and lower extremities to the left subclavian vein

thoracic duct

when tissue fluid is not returned to the lymphatic system, _______, or swelling could occur


lymph moves along the lymphatic vessels with the aid of the milking action of _______.

skeletal muscles

lymph exits the lymph node via the _______ lymphatic vessels.


the ______ is an example of a lymphoid organ that also serves as a blood reservoir


the _______ is/are made up of lymphoid tissue surrounding the pharynx


phagocytes are attracted to the site of injury by certain chemicals. this phenomenon is known as _______


tears contain enzymes known as _________, which have the ability to digest bacterial cells


when the heat regulation in the hypothalamus has been reset to a higher point, ______ results


_______ are cells that engulf foreign particles or bacteria found in the respiratory tract


small proteins secreted by virus-infected cells to help defend cells not yet infected are called _______.


when anaphylactic shock occurs, _______ is the drug of choice to reverse the histamine-mediated effects


a _______ contains dead or attenuated pathogens and is injected into a person to generate active immunity


the most abundant class of antibodies in the body is the ________.


T lymphocytes become immunocompetent in the ______.


(t/f) pathogens can mean harmful or disease-causing microorganisms


(t/f) the inflammatory response is part of the specific body defenses triggered whenever body tissues are injured


(t/f) mild or moderate fever may be of benefit to the body during an infection


(t/f) pyrogens are secreted by the hypothalamus in response to infection


(t/f) most vaccines contain dead or attenuated pathogens


(t/f) an antibody is any substance capable of exciting our immune system and provoking an immune response


(t/f) bacterial or viral infection is the most frequent cause of death in patients undergoing immunosuppressive therapy


(t/f) an autograft is when tissue is taken from an unrelated person


(t/f) complement refers to a group of at least 20 plasma proteins that circulate in the blood in an inactive state


(t/f) the body-wide or systemic acute allergic reaction, known as anaphylactic shock, is common


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