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100 terms

Computer Science

Vocabulary for the IB Computer Science class.
STUDY
PLAY
Abnormal
Data that is totally unexpected. Ex: A string "three" instead of an integer like 3.
Accessor
Extracts information from an object without changing it. Usually prefixed with 'get'.
Address
Reference to a value or object's memory location.
Algorithm
Finite set of well-defined instructions for accomplishing a task - a Recipe.
Applet
Graphical Java program that runs in a web browser or viewer.
Argument
Value we pass to an object via a parameter.
Array
Type of object used to store groups of similar elements.
Assignment
Storing the right-hand value of a statement in the variable on the left side of =.
Asynchronous
Data transmitted in small amounts at any time.
Attributes
Nouns that describe an object like colors, size, name, and position.
Batch
Processing of data with a delay in data collection and actual data entry.
Behaviors
Verbs that denote the actions of an object or what it does - methods.
Binary
ordered search method - list is halved until required item is found.
Block
Set of declarations and statements between a set of curly brackets { }.
Boolean
Data type used to represent a single true or false value.
Branching
Selection based on a given condition with two outcomes, true or false.
Buffer
Temporary storage location of limited size. holds data waiting to be used.
Bus
Set of parallel wires that allow bits to be transmitted over one of the wires.
Casting
Changing of data type. Ex: int value into a double. Referred to as type conversion.
Character
Data type used for letters, digits 0...9, and punctuation symbols.
Class
Template used to create objects which shows features and how they behave.
Client
Makes requests for service on a network - printing, get files, communication.
Comments
used to give helpful information about a code but ignored by a computer.
Compiler
Converts high-level language (C++) to low level machine language (1's and 0's)
Concatenation
Joining two o more strings or characters together to form one string.
Condition
Logical expression determined to be true or false - if true execution continues.
Constructor
Special method creates an instance of a class executed with "new" command.
Control Statement
Allows a program to proceed in a non-sequential matter. Ex: if/else, switch, while.
Data
Testing that involves valid and invalid input - range checks.
Declaration
Announcement of variable or object - includes data type and identifier.
Dot
Notation used to externally invoke methods. It is not necessary for internal calls.
Efficiency
The time and RAM needed to execute an algorithm.
Encapsulation
The term private is used to protect (hide) data or methods which prevents access.
Encryption
Process of changing data so that it can't be read without a decoding key.
Exceptions
Information about a problem during compiling or execution.
Extreme
Data that lies outside the expected limits.
Field
Variable declared in Class body and outside all Class methods - assigned Default.
Final
Declaration of constant variables Pi=3.14 that should not be changed.
Floating Point
Data type used for any signed or unsigned number with a decimal - double.
Formatted
Numerical and textual values properly aligned in an output display.
Functional
Testing of selection constructs like switch and if/else.
Garbage Collector
Removes stored data from memory at the end of a program's life - Housekeeping.
Hertz
Speed of a computer's internal clock - measure of CPU speed in cycles per second.
Identifier
Name used to describe classes, methods, variables. Starts with a letter - no spaces.
Increment
Increases or decreases for a loop counter. Ex: i++, i--, i+=2, or i=2i+1.
Inheritance
One class assumes the method of another superclass or parent.
Initialization
Sets a variable to a value accomplished with an assignment operator (=) sign.
Instance
An imprint of an object having its own individual properties - field assignments.
Integer
Data type used for any positive or negative number without a decimal point.
Interpreter
Program that reads and executes one line at a time. Ex: Java Virtual Machine.
Local
Variable declared and used only within a method {block} or construct - No default.
Logic
Error caused by incorrect sequence or choice of condition.
Loop
used to execute a block of code repeatedly without writing it multiple times.
Machine
Code created by the compiler or interpreter.
Message
Instruction sent to a class or an object to perform a task.
Method
Seqence of instructions an object follows to perform a task. Behavior - Verb.
Modifiers
Create levels of access - public, private, static, final, and abstract.
Modularity
Problem broken down into smaller components.
Mutator
Method that alters the attributes of an object. Usually prefixed with 'set'.
Nesting
Placing one control statements inside another.
Node
Computer or peripheral (printer) connected to a network. Also element of a tree.
Normal
Data that lies within the expected range - includes data at the outer limits.
Object
Set of related variabes and methods that model abstractions of the real-world.
On-line
Interactive processing of data. The system must have access to stored files.
Operators
Symbols that stand for basic functions (+, -, /, *, %).
Overflow
When a calculation is made that exceeds the upper limit (largest value).
Overloading
Using the same method name but different type and number of parameters.
Parameter
Variable name that is replaced by an actual value or memory location.
Pass-by-reference
Parameters are assigned a memory location or address.
Pass-by-value
Parameters are assigned arguments.
Portable
Code capable of running on different operating systems - Java Bytecode.
Precedence
Rules that govern the order in which an expression is solved.
Primitive
Data types - byte, short, int, long, float, double, char and Boolean.
Prototype
Semi-functional system used to understand how the real one will work.
Queue
Data structure that accesses data in a First In - First Out method - ticket line.
Real-time
immediate processing of data without the intervention of humans - sensors.
Recursion
Repetitive behavior which involves a method calling itself.
Reference
Handle that points to the memory location - address of an object.
Return-type
Data type method will send back to user. Ex: int, double, boolean. If none, then void.
Runtime
Errors caused by a compiled program - ÷ by 0, missing file, underflow/overflow.
Scope
Portion of program in which variable can be used. Local vs. Field (global).
Sequence
Action in an algorithm flow from one step to the next.
Sequential
Unordered search method - each element is inspected until required item is found.
Server
Responds to request of service on a network - prints, sends files, internet connect.
Shadow
Parameter and Class field have the same identifier - use myName or better this.name.
Signature
The access, return type, function name, and parameters of a method.
Source
Code is created by a programmer in an integrated development environment (BlueJ).
Stack
Data structure that access data in a Last In First Out method - pile of plates.
Static
Variable or method that can be called without instantiating the class.
String
Sequence of characters enclosed in quotation marks.
Synchronous
Data transmitted in larger blocks in a timed manner.
Syntax
Errors caught while compiling - caused by misspellings and wrong punctuation.
Tokenize
Method that returns the next word from current line of text.
Trace
Recording expected outcomes (values) of each variable at each step of execution.
Tree
Series of nodes with left (<) and right (>) pointers. Node have max of 2 sub-nodes.
Underflow
When a number is close to its lower limit is divided by a number greater than 1.
Validation
Check data for completeness and accuracy by range, type, and/or format.
Verification
Check data for errors by proofreading or double entry.
Weighted
Check value created by multiplying each digit and then summing the products.
Whitespace
Spaces, tabs, newline, etc. Removed by compression algorithms.