SOC 315 Final
Terms in this set (104)
Sociological Perspective of Family
Focuses on the structural sources of family life
•There is a close relationship between families and the larger society that shapes them.
•Social inequality is a key determinant of the experiences each family has. (Do your parents worry about money, have an education etc.)
•Family members do have access to outside resources
View all Social institutions (including family, religion, education, media, government) as supporting (being the pillar of) the operation of society as a whole. Each pillar is effected/connected if one comes down they all suffer
Structural diversity perspective
Families are socially constructed and historically changing. Family diversity is produced by the same structures that organize society as a whole. Race, class and gender shape families in different ways
Structural Diversity Approach
Family diversity is constructed through social structure as well as the actions of family members. There are multiple family realities. (siblings view & experiences of the family can be very different)
Family as Haven (Myth)
Image of a refuge from an impersonal world characterizes the family as a place of intimacy, love, and trust in which individuals may escape the competition in modern society. Two themes- love and protection.
Family as Fulfillment (Myth)
Today the family is more compensatory than protective. It supplies what is vitally needed but missing in other social arrangements. The image is still that of a haven, but now it is a haven of primary fulfillment and meaningful experience.
Family as Encumbrance
Anti-image. Calls for freedom from domestic relationships. Views family relations as inhibiting the quest for a full experience of self.
The Myth of a Stable and Harmonious family of the Past
Thinking that families of the past were better than families of the present. When in reality: There has never been a golden age of family, This has never been the majority of families throughout history. Even if divorce is higher now, child or spousal abuse could have been higher back then
The Myth of Separate Worlds
The notion that family is a place to escape from the outside world, making a distinction between "public" and "private" realms. When in reality: It ignores the harsh effects of economical conditions and social inequalities that causes stress and problems in the family
The myth of Monolithic family form
The notion that every family is the same. When in reality: Families are incredibly diverse. Increasing family diversity is attributed to, Economic transitions, New patterns in marriage and divorce (marrying later in life, or not at all, having children or not having children), A decline in the number of children women bear
The myth of Unified Experiences
That everyone within the family has the same experiences. When in reality: There are multiple experiences and different family realities within the same family. Family is a gendered institution (husbands & wives have different experiences within a family, same with brothers & sisters)
The Myth of Consensual relationships
That everyone agrees, no conflict and everyone loves one another all the time. When in reality: Love and conflict can coexist (there is no one you want to kill more than the person you love the most)
The Myth of Dysfunctional families the cause of social problems
Assumes the 2 parent family is the basis of social organization and family, Treats family as the building block of society rather than a product of social conditions, Ignores the structural reasons for family. When in reality
families are all effected by outer conditions, religion, economy, etc.
Goods & services were produced outside the household. Workers earned their living outside of home; families are supported by their wages
made products in the home (soap, food, etc.) They had many skills and very self-reliant
Industrialization took us to a family-wage economy. Things are purchased and made outside of the home now, household became smaller, development of family boundaries . Marriage based on romance.
The evolution of childhood and adolescence
Children wen from viewed in economical terms & requiring harsh discipline, to requiring affection and being in a stage of innocence to be cherished. Time should be spent with peers
The Cult of True Womanhood
Pios, Pure, Submissive , Domestic, The idealized notion of women's domestic role in the home where she performed her "sacred calling" (of God) of service to family
The Compadrzgo System
in the latino culture, the godparents, who are expected to play a strong role in your children's lives. Supposed to be there not only for religious holidays, but also to be there for financial & emotional support for the child, like secondary parents
Family adaptations to econmoic transformations
Delay of marriage, Extended family residence, women as breadwinners, less children, Help of extended family, decreased consumption, increase college education
Dual earner families, women in the workforce, kin-networks extended, More divorce & single parent homes, family became adaptable/flexible
Culture of Poverty Approach
poor families have a certain characteristic that set them apart from society that keeps them in poverty (blames the victim)
Structural Approach (Poverty)
Social class by race, class and gender has created group-inequalities & distributions of social resources/opportunities.
Both parents earn a wage outside the household
Changes in the labor force (Gender)
Men have decreased. Women have Increased
Panel Studies on Income Dynamics (PSID)
Poverty is not a permanent condition for most people
Poor families generally experience "episodes of poverty"
Female-headed families, African Americans, Latinos, and the elderly have longer than average episodes of poverty because they have fewer routes out of poverty
Edin & Kefalas' findings on unwed mothers
survive through: Welfare, work, boyfriends, family, informal/illegal jobs, Charities & church donations.
Housework after work (invisible family work)
Communicating and bonding with spouse and family
Making sure everyone is happy & on-track
What to purchase for the family, such as food, decor, vacations, etc.
Take care/keep up with extended family
Principle of least interest
In a relationship the person who has the least interest, has the greatest power. (The greater the status difference the greater the power difference)
Marrying people with similar characteristics, racial/ethnicity, religious background, age, education, social class.
A person by marriage gains social rank by marrying someone of a higher social class
A marriage in which a person loses social rank by marrying someone of a lower class.
Beliefs and practices that enforce heterosexual behaviors as normal while stigmatizing other forms of sexual impression
Sexual activity/satisfaction research
People's sexual choices are shaped by the social networks in which they operate. Married couples have sex the most. The highest levels of sexual well being are found in western countries where gender equality is the highest.
Defense Of Marriage Act ('96), states don't have to recognize same sex marriages, fed gov will only recognize heterosexual marriages for federal benefits
States with Gay Marriage
CT, MA, WA, NH, NY, VT, IA, DC, MD, ME
Marriage is declining, Marriage prolonged or not chosen. Interracial and inter-ethnic marriages are increasing.
5 types of enduring marriage
Conflict-habituated, Devitalized, Passive-congenial, Vital, Total
includes frequent conflict, fighting without apologies
partners were deeply in love, but as time passed love was lost, but stayed out of obligation
An enduring marriage that included little conflict but also little excitement, stay because of convenience
Vital Marriage but spouses participate in each others lives at all levels (work/home) and have little tension or unresolved hostility
Couples share true intimacy in all important aspects of their lives.
Bulk of satisfaction in life is drawn from their significant other
Power & Decision Making in Marriage
Power with: higher SES, more likely men, social class, middle class more egalitain
Power in Marriage (Race)
AA & Latino's Men normally hold power, but if women are employed they become more elagitarian
spouses consider themselves to have equal status or standing in the relationship/work. share 50/50-60/40breadwinning, housework, childrearing & decision-making
Children are the focus of attention
helping them with homework (making dinner, chores)
just being with children, sharing space but not interacting.
Intimate partner violence
Women & Men are victims but 80% women. 33 Mill. Americans have experienced, Normally the lower the social class the more common.
Correlates & Stressors associated with spouse abuse
social class (lower class, more likely, negatively related (income up, abuse down) unemployment status of male, occupation) sexual frustration, other abuse in family (animal, child), difference in power (men lower than women need to show power) race: colored people more likely)
is an on going pattern of dominance and control of the relationship. Includes a wide range of tactics including violence, it escalates over time. Effects are much more serve
Situational couple violence
not as often but a conflict that escalated to violence. Men slightly more likely to perpetrate. Women are effected more severely based on size and strength
Heter vs. Homosexual violence
Similar: abuse is centered on power & control
Different: gender patriarchy isn't the factor, threat of "outing" the other. less likely to report and legal system doesn't know how to handle as well.
Most common family abuse, intent is to harm. higher in households with violence, inadequate supervision, financial/martial problems, mental disorder or substance abuse of parent)
Victims: over the age of 80, mostly female, with physical/mental impairments, likely to be children & parent. Dependence= neglect of food/meds/help
Correlated of Child abuse
Social class: unemployed, poor the lower classes, isolation
Race & Ethnicity: minorities because of lower social class.
Gender: More likely women due to time spent with children.
Correlates of Incest
Normally between (Father/Grandfather and daughter) around the age of 12. Personal factors of mental or physical health, poor marriage quality. Substance abuse or history of abuse
Correlates of divorce
Cohort (time of birth each generation has different experiences of marriage. Premarital cohabitation, Age of first marriage, Circumstances of first birth, Finances& education
Correlates of divorce (Race)
Differs based on culture, higher in AA and Latino and also interracial couples
Correlates of divorce (Religion)
Jews & christians have highest, atheists lowest
Correlates of divorce (Education)
The higher the education the lower rates of divorce
Higher educated people are more likely to stayed marriage, than those of lower income.
an employed woman has alternatives to the marriage. Employed women who have alternative choice rather than marriage take make them more likely to consider divorce.
Improved Standard of living, Increased Personal Freedom: both from wife but also from kids since most are primarily given to mother's, Personal Isolation
Decreased standard of living, Personal Isolation: loss of status, maybe friends, of self. The Feminization of Poverty, An Opportunity for change
"Her" Divorce Sources of income
Alimony, Marital property: Cars, House, Job opportunities, Stocks, Child Support: Only 45% receive the full support they are supposed to if at all. Welfare & Employment
Adjustment patterns of ex-spouses
Enhanced, Competent Loners, Good-enoughs, Defeated, Seekers or Libertines
20%, grow to be better versions of self in work, family, and socially
10%, More emotionally self-sustaining, don't need lifetime companion
40%, Divorce was difficult but didn't have lasting impression (good or bad)
10% come to depression, substance abuse, &/or pointlessness of life.
Seekers or Libertines
20%, typically insecure men, remarry quickly or "life in the fast lane" of casual sex and no rules
Dissolution of same-sex couples
Their is no legal structure or protection with, property, custody of children and other factors
Remarriage Correlates (Gender)
Men (75%)more likely to remarry, Women (66%)more likely to have children in home and that becomes an issue when look for a new spouse,
Remarriage Correlates (Age)
the eligibility pool is more limited for women than men
Remarriage Correlates (SES)
The more money a men has the more likely they are to remarry; For women the less money the more likely to remarry
Remarriage Correlates (race)
AA & Latino's have lower remarriage rates
Both adults have children from previous marriage in the household (divorce more likely due to all the conflicts/personalities)
The family form created in a remarriage that involves one or more children from the previous marriage of either spouse.
Both parents are still very involved in kid(s) lives, "good divorce" 2 functioning families for children that work together, creates good support and doesn't plot child against other parent.
Acceptance of stepchild
leave discipline up to biological parent
Can't win, can't be their friend or their authority
Growing, Gender: More so women & if they are older. Race: increase among all races & socialclasses
imbalance in the ratio of men of marrying age to women of marrying age. increase as women age. Single women have higher levels of education, occupational status, and better health then single men.
Characteristics of New Single Woman
1. She creates a nurturing home where she feels physically and emotionally comfortable. 2. Her work is satisfying not only financially but personally as well. 3. May have relationships or not, may be short but has decided not to marry or move in with them. 4. She finds emotional intimacy with friends and family (being an aunt, godmother, kids that aren't hers)
Heterosexual Cohabitation Trends
60% of all marriages formed in the 1990s began with cohabitation.
More prevalent among younger than 35 years old. More likely to break up than married couple. Cohabitation is shaped by gender, class, race
Heterosexual Cohabitation (Gender)
Cohabitating women are younger than the men they live with. Cohabitators have less traditional notions about gender roles. Men view it more pragmatically (practical/save on costs), and women view it more as a step toward long-term commitment
Heterosexual Cohabitation (Class)
more common among less educated and lower income
Heterosexual Cohabitation (Race)
risen among all racial groups but higher among: AA & Hispanics
Four Cohabitation Types
The "Linus Blanket", The Emancipation, Convenience, Testing Mode
The "Linus Blanket" (cohabitation)
Develops from the dependence or insecurity of one of the partners, who prefers a relationship with anyone to being alone. Hold them closer, tighter, and the quality of relationship might not matter.
The Emancipation (cohabitation)
Using cohabitation to gain independence from parental values and influence. Get you away from the control of parents
Partners who live together more for practical reasons then for intimacy
Testing Mode (cohabitation)
Positive) View cohabitation as trial marriage. What is the balance of chores, what are they like 24/7. Two relatively mature partners with a clear commitment to test their already satisfying intimate relationship in a situation more closely resembling the marriage they tentatively anticipate. (As long as you are in the mindset that you want this to have a future/last forever)
Heter v. Homosexual couples
same looking for lasting love & to build a family. Homosexual couples more in urban area's, higher educated, higher income, more likely white or interracial
Domestic Partnership Movement
Define families as intimate partners in committed relationship (both same sex couples ad heterosexual couple who are not wed but share assets)
Verification through shared mortgage, lease, or other evidence. Benefits heterosexual cohabitate as well
Dual-career couples set up residences in separate locations, usually in response to the demands of their work
Commuter Marriages (Advantages)
Personal/Career fulfillment, enhance identity, Autonomy, Enhance family dynamics (effective use of quality time)
Commuter Marriages (Disadvantages)
Stress/Complex lifestyles, hectic schedule, sexual advances, financial hardship, loneliness/isolation, guilt,