College Biology 1 Final Exam
Quizes, chapter practice tests and previous class tests from chapters 1-17.
Terms in this set (146)
General differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells are?
Eukaryotic cells have membrane bound organelles, prokaryotic cells generally do not.
Beta cells are cells in the human pancreas whose primary function is to produce and secrete the protein hormone insulin. A beta cell would contain?
An active Golgi apparatus.
What is a reasonable explanation for why unsaturated fatty acids keep biological membranes fluid at lower temperatures?
Unsaturated fatty acids have kinks in their tails, preventing tight packing of adjacent lipids.
What is not found in chloroplasts?
Thylakoids, DNA, Ribosomes and an electron transport proteins.
What is found in plant cells, but not in animal cells?
In a plant cell DNA is found where?
In the nucleus, mitochondria, and chloroplasts.
What central structures grows out to the centrosome, and provides compression resistance for the cell?
What cellular structures interact with myosin motor proteins to produce contraction in human skeletal muscles?
What molecules would you expect to move most quickly through the plasma membrane via passive diffusion (directly through the phospholipid bilayer)?
What structures would most likely be associated with the cell-cell junction between a nerve cell and a muscle cell?
White blood cells engulf bacteria through what process?
What functions are not associated with membrane proteins?
Signal transduction, Enzymatic activity, Transport, and Phosphorilation of ADP to ATP.
What is always true of a chemical reaction with a negative delta G?
The reaction is spontaneous.
What is not true of the citric acid cycle?
3 NADH are produced per pyruvate, 1 FADH₂is produced per pyruvate and 1 ATP is produced per pyruvate.
What is true of Glycolysis, assuming 1 glucose as the starting carbohydrate?
Two 3-carbon sugars are produced by this process.
What processes produce(es) ATP by substrate level phosphorylation?
What would be expected to up-regulate (activate) phosphofructokinase activity?
High AMP concentration.
Use the following chemical reaction for this question and the next. CH₄+ o₂---> CO₂+ H₂O
Which of the molecules acts as the reducing agent in the above reaction?
Which of the molecules acts as the oxidizing agent in the above reaction?
What is not a direct product of the light reactions of photosynthesis?
T/F...Placing an animal cell in a hypertonic saline solution may result in cell lysis (cell rupture).
T/F...Spontaneous processes increase the entropy of the universe.
T/F...The diffusion of dye molecules when a drop of dye is dropped into a flask of water is an endergonic process.
Facilitated diffusion of molecules through protein channels is a type of active transport.
T/F...Proteins that function in the cytosol are generally made at free ribosomes.
T/F...A Glycolipid consists of a protein covalently bound to a lipid.
T/F...Spontaneous reactions always proceed toward equilibrium.
T/F...Hydrolyisis of ATP to ADP + P₁ os am exergonic process.
T/F...Pyruvate dehydrogensase, an essential enzyme in the production of acetyl CoA from pyruvate, requires Mg+ ions. Her, Mg+ ions acts as cofactors.
T/F...Pyruvate oxidation to acetyl CoA yields 2 FADH₂ per pyruvate.
Overall, cellular respiration is an anabolic process.
What is the overall balanced chemical equation for photosynthesis in plants? Use glucose as the sugar.
Energy + 6CO₂+ 6H₂O----->C₆H₁₂O₆ + 6O₂
Carbon fixation is the first step in ____. Carbon fixation is catalyzed by the enzyme_____, which incorporates carbon from the molecule_____ into organic molecules. The organic molecules are then (reduced or oxidized)______to produce a sugar with (How many)____carbons, which is then further modified to produce glucose?
Calvin cycle, rubisco, CO₂, reduced, 3.
At which level of the hierarchy of biology does the emergent property of Photosynthesis first occur?
What is the lowest level of the hierarchy of biology that can perform all of the functions of life, and thus has all the properties of life?
In an aqueous solution at standard temperature and pressure, if [H+] = 10⁻⁹M, what is [OH]?
The common ancestor between two species is most recent (i.e. the two species are most closely related) if the two species are members of the same?
What best describes all of the white-tailed deer living in a 20km₂forest in eastern Faulkner County, AR?
What four elements make up about 96% of the human body, and about 96% of all living matter?
Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen.
What type of bond must be broken in order for water to vaporize? (evaporate)
Which type of energy is produced as a by-product of conversions of energy from one type to another?
The purpose of double-blinding in an experiment is to?
Minimize human bias.
A botanist is studying the effect of light on leaf growth in the plant species Arabidopsis thaliana. 100 A. thaliana plants are grown in a greenhouse under varying lengths of artificial daylight, with treatments varying from 2 hours of daylight to 20 hours of daylight, per 24 hour period. The amount of water and fertilizer were kept constant among all treatments. After 30 days, the size of each leaf on every plant was measured. Depending on the genetics of the individual plant, hair-like structures called trichomes may or may not be present on the stem of the plant. What is the independent variable?
Length of artificial daylight.
In the previous experiment in Arabidopsis thaliana, which of the following was the dependent variable?
Size of leaves.
Hydrophobic substances such as vegetable oil are?
Nonpolar substances that repel water molecules.
We can be sure that a mole of water (H₂O) and a mole of ethanol (C₂H₆O) are equal in their?
Number of molecules.
How many electrons does oxygen need to gain to fill its valence shell?
If oxygen were more electronegative...?
water would be more polar.
A compound contains carboxyl groups as its predominant functional group. What is true concerning this compound?
It should dissolve in water.
What is not a polymer?
The covalent bonding of two amino acids requires?
The release of a water molecule.
The covalent bond that holds two amino acids together is called a ?
What would you expect to find at the 5' end of a DNA strand?
A Phosphate group.
Transmembrane proteins span the phospholipid bilayer, from one surface to the other, often acting as a "tunnel" through the hydrophobic membrane interior. Of these three amino acids: Alanine, Leucine and Asparagine, which would you expect to find at the surface "entrance" to the transmembrane protein?
Which of the three amono acids, asparagine, alanine and leucine would you expect to find covering the exterior of the "tunnel" section, coming into contact with the interior of the phospholipid bilayer?
Both alanine and leucine.
If in a double-stranded DNA molecule, 20% of the nitrogenous bases are Guanine, what percentage of the nitrogenous bases are Cytosine?
What term correctly describes the monomeric subunit that is linked together to form the nucleic acid polymer?
Beta pleated sheets and Alpha helices form a part of the____structure of proteins.
What is true of Thymine?
Its a pyrimidine and it occurs in DNA.
Which type of bond holds the two antiparallel strands of a double DNA molecule together?
Covalent bonds between purines and pyrimidines.
T/F...Independent variables are manipulated by the researcher, and the effect on the dependent variables is measured.
T/F...Qualitative data is never as good or as valuable as quantitative data.
T/F...A population that has zero genetic variation and no variation in traits will NOT be acted upon by natural selection.
T/F...Archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes share a common ancestor.
T/F... A scientific theory is generally accepted as truth and is supported by a great deal of evidence, but still can be modified or discarded if sufficient evidence comes out to disprove the theory.
T/F...An atom with 12 protons and 14 neutrons is the same element as an atom with 12 protons and 12 neutrons.
T/F\...For glucose, an equilibrium exists between a linear and a ring structure, but that equilibrium favors the linear structure.
T/F...Saturated fats are usually liquid at room temperature.
T/F...In a population of white beetles living in a dark cave, where no variation in color and no variation in the genes controlling color exist, a mutation occurs in a new-born beetle that gives it a black color. The birth of this individual is due to natural selection.
T/F...In the beetle population aforementioned, following the birth of the white beetle and over the course of several dozen generations, black color becomes more common than white color. This change in the population over generations is due to natural selection.
T/F...An aqueous solution in which [H+] = 10⁴M is acidic.
T/F...Phospholipids, like fats, contain glycerol.
T/F...Every protein has four levels of structure: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary.
What is characterized by a cell releasing a signaling molecule into the extracellular environment, followed by a response from cells in the immediate vicinity?
What is true of transcription factors?
They regulate gene expression.
One of the major categories of receptors in the plasma membrane reacts to a signaling molecule by forming dimers, adding phosphate groups, and then activating relay proteins. Which type does this?
Receptor tyrosine kinases.
What is a correct association?
GTPase activity and hydrolysis of GTP to GDP.
What is/are potential cellular responses to an endocrine signal?
Upregulation of gene expression, changing of cytoplasmic ion concentrations, activation of a particular enzyme, and cytoskeletal movement.
Phosphorilation cascades involving a series of protein kinases are useful for cellular signal transduction because?
They amplify the original signal.
A group of cells assayed for DNA content at the beginning of G₁, and is found to have an average of 8 picograms of DNA per nucleus. How many picograms would be found at the end of S phase, and at the end of G²?
For anaphase to begin, which of the following must occur?
Spindle microtubules must begin to break down.
At which stage of the cell cycle are chromosomes attached to the spindle and lined up along the middle of the cell?
Microtubules that interact with microtubules from the other side of the mitotic spindle, pushing against each other and maintaining the shape of the spindle, are called?
What mechanism is normally involved in regulating the cell cycle?
Anchorage dependance, density-dependent inhibition, and growth factors.
During which stage of the cell cycle do the two members of a homologous pair of chromosomes line up on opposite sides of the metaphase plate?
Metaphase I of meiosis.
During which stage of the cell cycle does crossing over (homologous recombination) occur?
Prophase I of meiosis.
During which stage of the cell cycle is the DNA found in duplicated, non-condensed chromatin form?
During which stage of the cell cycle does DNA replication occur?
A human somatic cell contains 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes at G₁. How many sister chromatids are present in the same cell at G₂?
What is the probability that a normal, two sided coin is flipped three times in a row, landing on heads all three times?
What is an example of a true-breeding genotype?
What is/are true of the flower color gene in pea plants, for which dominant purple allele (P) and a recessive (p) allele exist?
Both alleles are found at the same locus.
T/F...Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a common second messenger involved in cell signaling.
T/F...In a multicellular eukaryotic organism, all cells respond the same way to an endocrine signal.
T/F...Flowering plants produce a multicellular haploid stage as part of their life cycle.
T/F...Animals produce a multicellular haploid stage as part of their life cycle.
T/F...In animals, a cell plate forms between the daughter cells during cytokinesis.
T/F...A human somatic cell is diploid at mitotic metaphase.
T/F...Mitosis produces two identical daughter cells with haploid sets of chromosomes.
T/F...In all eukaryotic organisms, the nuclear envelope breaks down during mitosis.
T/F...No human characteristics are inherited in a single gene, dominant/recessive manner.
The human ABO blood group is inherited in a codominant manner.
A father is AaTt and can make what gametes?
AT, At, aT, and at
A mother is AaTT and can make what gametes?
AT, and at.
The most common form of colorblindness is inherited on the X chromosome. If a colorblind man and a woman who is a carrier for colorblindness have a child, what is the probability that the child is a colorblind male?
If the couple aforementioned has another child, what is the probability that the child is a girl with normal vision?
What human cell types would be expected to have 22 autosomes and a Y chromosome?
What phenomena is responsible for the calico coloration seen in female domestic cats?
What process could transfer a gene from chromosome 4 to chromosome 7?
In DNA replication E.coli, what enzymes is/are more active on the lagging strand than on the leading strand?
What is true of a nucleosome?
It consists of DNA wrapped around 8 histone proteins, contains 4 different types of histone proteins, and are "beads on a string".
What is the role of the scaffold protein in chromatin packaging?
Serves as an attachment point for the looping of the selenoid structure.
In which area of a chromosome would you expect to find the most genes?
What process involves the production of mRNA from a DNA template?
Where would you expect to find a difference in sugar in the sugar in DNA, compared to the sugar in RNA?
At the 2' carbon.
What is found in the eukaryotic gene but not in a bacterial gene?
Given the following mRNA sequence: 5'-AACUCGUGCT-3' : what is the coding strand of DNA?
What eukaryotic processes requires the presence of transcription factors?
Initiation of transcription.
What is removed from a eukaryotic pre-mRNA by the Spliceosome?
What structures are composed of a combination of nucleic acids and amino acids?
Spliceosome, ribosome, and chromatin.
What is not true of tRNA?
That it's found only in prokaryotic organisms.
In E.coli DNA replication, this enzyme adds nucleotides to the growing daughter strand.
DNA polymerase 3
In E.coli DNA replication, this enzyme separates the two parent strands at the replication fork.
In E.coli DNA replication, this enzyme adds nucleotides to fill in gaps left by the removal of primers.
In E.coli DNA replication, this enzyme relieves tension in the DNA double helix downstream from the replication fork.
In E.coli DNA replication, this enzyme has proofreading ability, allowing it to catch and correct most of its own mistakes.
DNA polymerase 3
A charged tRNA enters the ribosome at this location
An uncharged tRNA exits the ribosome at this location.
The growing polypeptide chain is transformed from the tRNA in the___ to the tRNA in the ___forming a new peptide bond.
P site, A site.
T/F...Males are the heterogametic sex in all animal species.
T/F...Human mitochondrial genes are inherited from the male parent.
T/F...A single nondisjunction during meiosis 1 would result in two gametes each with one extra chromosome, and two gametes each with one missing chromosome.
T/F...A trisomy of chromosome 1 would be expected to have a more profound effect on phenotype than a trisomy of chromosome 21.
T/F...In humans there are more Y-linked disorders than X-linked disorders.
T/F...The nitrogenous base Adenine is a purine.
T/F...The nitrogenous base in Adenine is found in RNA and DNA.
T/F...The nitrogenous base Adenine usually pairs with Cytosine.
T/F...A phosphate group is found at the 3' end of a DNA strand.
T/F...Okasaki fragments are produced only by leading strand synthesis.
T/F...The enzyme telomerase is more active in somatic cells than in cells that produce gametes.
T/F...Chromatin is a combination of DNA and protein.
T/F...Eukaryotic transcription and translation often occur simultaneously in the same part of the cell.
T/F...There is always only one codon that can code for any particular amino acid.
T/F...A nucleotide-pair substitution is more likely to lead to a frame-shift than a nucleotide-pair insertion.
T/F... It is possible for a change in the DNA sequence of a gene to have no effect on protein structure.
T/F...A ribosome is not able to alternate between a free and a bound state.