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What are 4 antibiotics that most commonly cause type I allergic reactions
1) Penicillins <<< MAIN ONE
What type of reaction occurs
IgG binds to target hapten or antigen and causes complement destruction of target cells
4 Drugs that most commonly cause type II allergic reactions
The antibodies bind the antigen or hapten and then form complexes which get deposited in vessel walls and activate complement resulting in vasculitis (excess of antibody and little antigen)
4 Agents that cause type III allergic reactions
3) Radiocontrast Agents
What is an allergic reaction involving the skin that is very serious? What does it progress to1
SJS progresses to TEN
Treatment of anaphylaxis
1) Epinephrine IM or SQ q 5 minutes / NS infusion
2) If not responding then epinephrine infusion
3) +/- diphenhydramine ; Ranitidine ; Inhaled B-agonist ; dopamine (hypotension refractory to NS and epinephrine) ; hydrocortisone
What is percutaneous (prick) skin testing
They put a drop on the skin and take a needle through the drop and measure allergic response
Cephalosporin / Penicillin Cross Sensitivity
~4% or less ; more common cross-reactivity with 1st generation cephalosporins
ASA / NSAIDs can also cause? How often do ASA / NSAIDs cause anaphylaxis
1) Urticaria (most common IgE reaction)
2) Second only to beta-lactams
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