Socio-cultural Level of analysis

Terms in this set (67)

Studies: Levine and Norenzayan (1999)
Aim: To compare the pace of life in large cities from 31 countries around the world.
Procedure: Three indicators of pace of life were observed: average walking speed in downtown locations, the speed with which postal clerks completed a simple request (work speed), and the accuracy of public clocks.
Results: Overall, pace of life was fastest in Japan and the countries of Western Europe and was slowest in economically undeveloped countries. The pace was significantly faster in colder climates, economically productive countries, and in individualistic cultures. Faster places also tended to have higher rates of death from coronary heart disease, higher smoking rates, and greater subjective well-being.
Analysis: Pace of life is intertwined with the social-psychological and community characteristics of a culture, and the central role of pace of life in defining the personality of a place and its people.

Ayoun and Moreo (2009)
Aim: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the following expatriate issues as related to the hospitality industry, from the perspective of practitioners: the most important management skills hotel expatriates should possess, whether these skills vary by the country of origin of the expatriate and parent company, and the most effective cross-cultural training activities provided by hotel companies.
Procedure: Data for this exploratory study was obtained from a sample of 66 respondents from lodging organizations with membership in the International Hotel and Restaurant Association (IH & RA). Data was collected by means of self-administered, web-based surveys.
Results: Participants in this study indicate that expatriate management skills vary in importance for hotel expatriates. The results of the analysis of variance demonstrate that the importance placed on the different expatriate management skills varies based on country of origin of both the expatriate and the parent company.
Analysis: Respondents and companies originating in different countries place more importance on certain expatriate management skills than others. Study indicates that seven of nine cross-cultural training activities provided by the parent company are perceived to be effective for the success of an expatriate assignment.
Acronym: CLA- Cats Love Apes
Theory: Social identity theory (Tajfel and Turner 1979) - assumes that individuals strive to improve their self-image by trying to enhance their self-esteem, based on either personal identity or various social identities.
Studies: Cialdini et al. (1976) in-group out-group in college football supporters
Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the rationale behind football game day attire and to establish whether organizational identification, perceived organizational prestige, and game day participation influenced clothing choice.
Results: By identifying the game day clothing habits of female college students attending Divison I-A schools throughout the United States, four factors (fashion consciousness, desire for comfort, desire for uniqueness, and spirit-seeking behavior) were found to influence game day attire.
Analysis: Football game participation was found to be the strongest predictor of football clothing choice.

Tajfel et al. (1971)
Aim: To determine if children were susceptible to in groups and out groups

Procedure: He observed that boys who were assigned randomly to a group, based on their supposed preference for the art of either Kandinsky or Klee, were more likely to identify with the boys in their group and were willing to give higher rewards to them.
Results: He asked for ratings of in group and out group on traits such as likeability. Out group had lower ratings but was never actually disliked.
Analysis: Group identity appears to not be responsible for intergroup conflict, in the absence of competition; social comparison doesn't always produce a negative outcome.
Acronym- SITCT- small Irish talking cat talks