Socio-cultural Level of analysis
Terms in this set (67)
Human beings are social animals with a basic need to belong
Culture influences human behavior
Humans have a social self which reflects their group memberships
Principle 1: Human beings are social animals with a basic need to belong
Theories: Belongingness Theory -Baumesiter and Leary (1995): Humans are motivated to form and maintain interpersonal relationships and human culture is adapted to enable people to satisfy the psychological need to live together
Studies: Moscovici and Lage (1976)
Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate if the minority could influence the majority.
Results: The minority was able to influence about 32% of the participants to make at least one incorrect judgment. Participants continued to give their incorrect responses even after the two confederates had left the experiment.
Analysis: When a minority maintains a consistent view, it is able to influence the majority.
Aim: To determine how social representations of Brixton affected the identity of teen girls
Results: She carried out focus-group interviews with adolescents living in Brixton, London. Focus group used groups of friends so controversial topics could be discussed honestly. Found that the negative representation was from those not from Brixton and those who lived there disagreed (us vs them).
Analysis: Study shows how social representations may become the basis for stereotyping- both negative and positive- and how it can contribute to social identity.
Acronym: BCMH- Big Cats Meet Hedgehogs
Principle 2: Culture influences human behavior
Studies: Levine and Norenzayan (1999)
Aim: To compare the pace of life in large cities from 31 countries around the world.
Procedure: Three indicators of pace of life were observed: average walking speed in downtown locations, the speed with which postal clerks completed a simple request (work speed), and the accuracy of public clocks.
Results: Overall, pace of life was fastest in Japan and the countries of Western Europe and was slowest in economically undeveloped countries. The pace was significantly faster in colder climates, economically productive countries, and in individualistic cultures. Faster places also tended to have higher rates of death from coronary heart disease, higher smoking rates, and greater subjective well-being.
Analysis: Pace of life is intertwined with the social-psychological and community characteristics of a culture, and the central role of pace of life in defining the personality of a place and its people.
Ayoun and Moreo (2009)
Aim: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the following expatriate issues as related to the hospitality industry, from the perspective of practitioners: the most important management skills hotel expatriates should possess, whether these skills vary by the country of origin of the expatriate and parent company, and the most effective cross-cultural training activities provided by hotel companies.
Procedure: Data for this exploratory study was obtained from a sample of 66 respondents from lodging organizations with membership in the International Hotel and Restaurant Association (IH & RA). Data was collected by means of self-administered, web-based surveys.
Results: Participants in this study indicate that expatriate management skills vary in importance for hotel expatriates. The results of the analysis of variance demonstrate that the importance placed on the different expatriate management skills varies based on country of origin of both the expatriate and the parent company.
Analysis: Respondents and companies originating in different countries place more importance on certain expatriate management skills than others. Study indicates that seven of nine cross-cultural training activities provided by the parent company are perceived to be effective for the success of an expatriate assignment.
Acronym: CLA- Cats Love Apes
Principle 3: Humans have a social self which reflects their group memberships
Theory: Social identity theory (Tajfel and Turner 1979) - assumes that individuals strive to improve their self-image by trying to enhance their self-esteem, based on either personal identity or various social identities.
Studies: Cialdini et al. (1976) in-group out-group in college football supporters
Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the rationale behind football game day attire and to establish whether organizational identification, perceived organizational prestige, and game day participation influenced clothing choice.
Results: By identifying the game day clothing habits of female college students attending Divison I-A schools throughout the United States, four factors (fashion consciousness, desire for comfort, desire for uniqueness, and spirit-seeking behavior) were found to influence game day attire.
Analysis: Football game participation was found to be the strongest predictor of football clothing choice.
Tajfel et al. (1971)
Aim: To determine if children were susceptible to in groups and out groups
Procedure: He observed that boys who were assigned randomly to a group, based on their supposed preference for the art of either Kandinsky or Klee, were more likely to identify with the boys in their group and were willing to give higher rewards to them.
Results: He asked for ratings of in group and out group on traits such as likeability. Out group had lower ratings but was never actually disliked.
Analysis: Group identity appears to not be responsible for intergroup conflict, in the absence of competition; social comparison doesn't always produce a negative outcome.
Acronym- SITCT- small Irish talking cat talks
discuss two errors in attributions
theories to support
Ross (1977) The Fundamental Attribution Error (FAE) occurs when people over estimate personality traits (dispositional factors) and underestimate environmental factors. For example "Kelli is always late to class because she is lazy" (FAE). People tend to ignore situational factors "Kelli is late because her last class is far away".
Self serving Bias (SSB)- This is seen when people take credit for their own successes attributing them to dispositional factors, and dissociate themselves from their failures. For example when Marwah gets an A on a test she might say "I'm just a fast learner, I'm just naturally smart", but when she flunks a test she might attribute that to situational factors "I had to work late that night, and finish an IA. I had no time to study!"
studies to support FAE
FAE Ross, Amabile, and Steinmetz (1997)
AIM- To investigate whether knowledge of allocated social roles in a quiz show would affect participants judgment of people expertise.
PROCEDURE- Students at Stanford university are paired up. One student is the questioner and is asked to create 10 questions based on their knowledge. the second student has to answer the questions like a game show, and is the asked "rate the general knowledge of contestants and questioners"
RESULT- contestants rated questioners to have more general knowledge. This is an example of FAE because the contestants attribute to dispositional factors rather than situational, the questioners created the questions based on their knowledge.
FAE Lee et al. (1977) (similar experiment as the one above)
AIM- To see if student partcipants would make the fundamental attribution error even when they knew that the actors were playing a role.
PROCEDURE- Three roles, game show host (makes questions), contestant, Audience member.
RESULT-participants rated the game show host as the most intelligent.
Studies to support SSB
Lau and Russel (1980) Found that American football coaches and players tend to credit success to internal factors ( Good shape, hard work, natural talent). And failures with external factors (Injuries, weather, fouls)
Greenberg et al. (1982) Argus that we do this to protect our self esteem. If we can attribute our success to dispositional factors, it boots our self esteem, if we can attribute failures to factors beyond out control, we can protect our self esteem.
Principles of theSociocultural level of analysis
1) Human beings are social creatures, and have a basic need to "belong"
2) Culture influences behavior
3) Humans have a social self, this is a collectivist identity. for example when Princess Diana died, all of the UK mourned her death as if part of her family.
FAE- Amabile, and Steinmetz (1997). Lee et al. (1977)
Fat Albert Eating Armadillo Stew in (1997)
and Leefy salad in (1977)
SSB-Lau and Russel (1980). Greenberg et al. (1982)
Sad Sofia Basauri Landed Roughly in (1980) and Gimping Ever After in (1982)
Explains how people interpret and explain casual relationships in the social world: From observing other people's actions, people make inferences about intention and responsibility
People produce group-distinctive stereotypical and normative perceptions and actions and assign people, including themselves, to the contextually relevant category
The process of the categorization process accentuates both perceived similarities between stimuli belonging to the same category and perceived differences between stimuli belonging to different categories
Aim: To investigate if boys placed in random groups based on an arbitrary task would display in-group favoritism and inter-group discrimination (same as Tajfel, 1971)
Results: Sixty four UK schoolboys aged 14-15 were shown clusters of varying numbers of dots, flashed onto a screen and had to estimate the number of dots in each cluster. They were then assigned groups at random. The boys then had to give small amounts of money to other boys, knowing what group the other boys were in. The results showed that a large majority of the boys gave more money to members of their own category than to members of other categories.
Analysis: This study is an example of in-group favoritism and how the social groups and categories to which someone belongs to are an important part of one's self-concept.
Aim: To investigate if boys placed in random groups based on an arbitrary task would display in-group favoritism and inter-group discrimination (same as Tajfel, 1970)
Results: Boys were randomly placed in groups based on their supposed artistic preferences of two painters and then had to give away small amounts of money away, knowing which boys belonged to which groups. It was found that the boys were more willing to give away money to members of the same group.
Analysis: This study is an example of in-group favoritism and how the social groups and categories to which someone belongs to are an important part of one's self-concept.
Caroline Howarth (2002)
Aim: To see how the different social representations of Brixton affected the identity of teen girls
Results: Focus-group interviews with adolescents living in Brixton in London were conducted. The results found that there was a negative representation from being form Brixton which was not shared by those actually living in Brixton.
Analysis: This study shows how social representations may become the basis for stereotyping and how this can contribute to social identity
ASTC - alligator sees the tiny camper
-Good waay of understnanding human behavior
-Helps explain social phenomena like: ethnocentrism, in-group favoritism, stereotyping, and conformity to in-group norms
-Describes human behavior but doesn't predict it
-Fails to address environmental factors that interact with the "self"
Theory: Contact Hypothesis
Allport (1954) formulated the idea that mere exposure or interaction with other groups can reduce stereotypes and prejudice. Context and quality of contact determine how effective it is. Other types of contact that can curb prejudice include extended, imagined and elaborated within this imagination. It is said that intergroup anxiety decreases and positive in-group and out-group norms form with contact. The more knowledge an individual gathers about out-group persons and how they defy stereotypes lead to realizing similarities that halt prejudices.
Contact Hypothesis: Study 1
o Husnu and Crisp (2010):
-Aim: To determine if elaborating imagined contact causes contact effects to me amplified.
-Procedure: 60 British students, none Muslim, specified number of British Muslims they knew. Some were asked to imagine a conversation with a Muslim stranger where they discovered interesting facts about them. Certain participants were asked to elaborate images by thinking of the time and place they are interacting. Following this task, participants were asked how vivid the conversation was and various questions on if they would expect to enjoy interactions with Muslims in the future.
Results: Participants were more likely to intend to interact with British Muslims in the future if the images were elaborated.
Contact Hypothesis: Study 2
o Tausch, Hewstone, Kenworthy, Psaltis, Schmid, Popan, Cairns, and Hughes (2010):
-The aim was to determine if contact with one group can curb prejudice to other groups as well. Their first study showed Cypriot Greeks who interacted with Cypriot Turks often, rather than never, formed more positive attitudes towards this group and residents of Turkey as well. The second study showed Irish Protestants who interacted often, rather than never, with Irish Catholics forming more positive attitudes towards this other group and also towards distinct minorities, such as Asians or Africans. The level of contact was determined by the extent to which participants had interacted and visited in the homes of the other community. Attitudes were measured by participants specifying the extent to which they felt cold or warm towards the other community members on a scale of 0 to 100 degrees.
Theory: Stereotype Threat
Steele and Aronson (1995) formulated the idea that the fear of reinforcing stereotypes about oneself or one's group results in them actually reinforcing the stereotype. They aimed to discover if stereotype really could affect something as irrepressible as intelligence. The participants were both black and white Stanford students, most of them sophomores. They were given, one at a time, a thirty-minute verbal test using items from the advanced Graduate Record Examination in literature to make it difficult for them, and causing the difference for the black participants. The assumption was that the black students knew they are especially likely to be seen as having limited ability, and this pressure may not be experienced entirely consciously, but it impaired their best thinking. Black students performed less well because they were less motivated, or because their skills were somehow less applicable to the advanced material of the test.
Culture influences human behavior
Stereotypes Form from Contact, Culture and Threat
Some Flamingos Can't Conga Tentatively
Social Cognitive Theory
-Based on social learning theory, but the focus is on beliefs and how self-beliefs influence behavoir
-People are motivated not only by role models, but also their own beliefs and previous experiences
Proxemic Theory (1966)
-Different cultures have different perceptions of the amount of personal space that is required to be comfortable
Bandura et al. (1961)
Aim: To see if children would imitate aggression modeled by an adult and to see if children were more likely to imitate same-sex models
Results: 36 boys and 36 girls aged 3 to 6 were split up into 3 different groups. Group 1 witnessed an adult expressing aggression towards a BoBo doll by bashing it, Group 2 witnessed a non-aggressive adult playing with toys, and Group 3 was the control group. When placed in a room with the BoBo doll, the children who had observed the aggressive models were significantly more aggressive both physically and verbally. (the girls were shown to be more verbally aggressive and the boys were shown to be more physically abusive)
Analysis: This study supports social learning theory by showing how the children's behavior was influenced by observational learning
Huesmann and Eron (1986)
Aim: To see if there is a link between violent television and aggressive behavior
Results: A longitudinal study was conducted over a 15 year period monitoring children's behavior. A positive correlation between the number of hours of violence watched on television by elementary school children and the level of aggression demonstrated when they were teenagers
Analysis: This study supports social learning theory by demonstrating how behavior is learned through observational learning
SPBH - singing penguin brings hat
Aim: to test whether participants who'd received a favor from another would be more likely to help this person than if they hadn't received a favor
Procedure: Participant and confederate were asked to rate paintings, in the experimental condition the participant received a favor and the confederate then asked the participant to buy raffle tickets.
Results: participants in experimental condition bought twice as many tickets than those in the control
Analysis: Lab experiment means its questionable ecological validity but shows that even if the favor asker isn't liked, they will still reciprocate.
Dickerson et al. (1992)
Aim: To get university students to conserve water in dorm showers.
Procedure: Asked students in Santa Cruz, CA to sign a poster promising to take shorter showers. Then they surveyed them to think about their water usage. Then their shower times were monitored.
Results: Students who signed the poster and were forced to think about their usage had avg. shower times of 3.5 minutes. Significantly lower than avg. shower time in the dorms as a whole.
Analysis: Students felt obligated due to Foot in the door technique (real/large request is preceded by a smaller one)
This is based on the first principle that human beings are social animals with a basic need to belong
Acronym: CRD- Cats read diaries
Foot in the door technique
Real and large request is preceded by a smaller one. This technique is used in fund raising and to promote environmental awareness. This can be interpreted in terms of commitment, once people have said yes, they perceive themselves as committed and want to behave consistently with that commitment. This is most powerful when the person's self - image is related to the request.
Social Impact Theory
Latane (1981): suggest whys individuals conform in certain conditions
-The more people that are around, the stronger the influence is
-Strength: the importance of the people to the individual impacts the influence they have
-Limitation: the likenesses for influence by a speaker in a small group is stronger than a large group
Cialdini's Principles of Social Influence
-Explains the domains in which social influence is most powerful
-Principles of this theory
Reciprocity, commitment and consistency, social proof, liking, authority, scarcity.
-Aim: investigate if perceived group pressure by a majority can influence a minority in an experimental set up.
-Method: Seven male students were positioned around two white cards. There were three line and another one line. They had to say which of the three lines match the one. There told the experimenter their answer out loud. There was one real participant and six confederates.
-Results: In the control group, 35 participants didn't make a single error so in total .7% errors were made.
-Strengths: a high degree of control ensures that a cause-effect relationship can be established between variables
-The results were replicated many times so its reliable.
-Can explain to some extent why people conform to social and cultural norms in real life
-Limitations: The experiment was conducted in the USA with male students as participants so this affects generalization
-The results can only explain how a majority nay influence a minority not the other way around
Smith and Bond (1998)
-Aim: to test the degree to which conformity is a product of cultural conditions and social climates
-Procedure: researchers looked at conformity studies from 1952-1994 that used the same or similar procedures as Asch's original study; 133 studies in 17 countries total
-Results: collectivist countries showed higher levels of conformity than individualist countries; the impact of the cultural variables on conformity levels was greater than any other variable
-Strengths: takes cross-cultural considerations into account
-Uses a large variety and number of studies to analyze and investigate
-Cultures are not homogeneous, and differences between individualist or collectivist cultures have been established in other research (Schwartz 1992)
-It is possible that the task was more meaningful for one culture than another, and that these differences were actually being measured instead of conformity
Social Impact Theory
Cialdini's Principles of Social Influence
Smith and Bond
Sit in the car please, Susan is always sitting back
Theory 1) Social Learning Theory
Bandura's Social Learning Theory posits that people learn from one another, via observation, imitation, and modeling. The theory has often been called a bridge between behaviorist and cognitive learning theories because it encompasses attention, memory, and motivation.Necessary conditions for effective modeling: Attention — various factors increase or decrease the amount of attention paid. Includes distinctiveness, effective valence, prevalence, complexity, functional value. One's characteristics (e.g. sensory capacities, arousal level, perceptual set, past reinforcement) affect attention.
Retention — remembering what you paid attention to. Includes symbolic coding, mental images, cognitive organization, symbolic rehearsal, motor rehearsal
Reproduction — reproducing the image. Including physical capabilities, and self-observation of reproduction.
Motivation — having a good reason to imitate. Includes motives such as a past (i.e. traditional behaviorism), promised (imagined incentives) and vicarious (seeing and recalling the reinforced model)
Study 1: Sherif (1935)
Shefif used the autokinetic effect (an optical illusion where a fixed pinpoint of light in a completely dark room appears to move because of the eye movements). Half of the participants first watched the light alone and gave a verbal estimate of how much and in what direction the light moved. Sherif found that after a number of trials participants began to estimate based on their own frame of reference. Then the experiment continued in groups with three to four participants who took turns to estimate in random order. The participants now used each other's estimates as a frame of reference and these converged into more or less identical estimates. A group norm had developed, which participants conformed to once it had been established. Then the other half of participants performed the estimation task alone. Sherif found that participants continued to estimate based on the group norm, when they did the task alone. The results showed that social norms emerge to guide behavior when people find themselves in uncertain situations.
Study 2: Asch (1951)
Aim: To investigate whether perceived group pressure by a majority can influence a minority in an experimental set up that is not ambiguous.
Procedure: Seven male college students were placed around two white cards. One card had three lines (A,B, C) and another had one line. They had to say out loud which of the three lines on the right had the same length as the line on the left. There was one real participant in the experiment and six were confederates who were instructed to give unanimous wrong answers.
Results: In the control group of 37 participants made the estimates alone for comparison.
Sally swims always (Social learning theory, Sherif 1935, Asch 1951)
common rules that regulate interactions and behavior in a group as well as a number of shared values and attitudes in the group
a collective mental programming that is the "software of the mind" that guides a group of people in their daily interactions and distinguishes them from other groups of people
dynamic system of rules, explicit and implicit, established by groups in order to ensure their survival, involving attitudes, values, beliefs, norms, and behaviors
noun - affecting behavior
Berry (1967) used variation of Asch's conformity paradigm and found less conformity in Inuit culture than in Temne people. Inuit - hunter-gatherers, Temne - gather from one community crop, collectivism.
-rules that a specific group uses for stating what is seen as appropriate and inappropriate behaviors, values, beliefs, and attitudes
-a sense of order and control to live in a sense of safety and belonging; may encompass communication style, whom to marry and how, child-rearing practices, or interaction between generation
-explicit: very specific and clear (legal codes)
-implicit: understood but not expressed (conventional practices and rituals)
noun, acceptance of behaviors
Hall's Proxemic Theory (1966)
-different cultures have different perceptions of the amount of personal space that is required to be comfortable
-US: people converse in 4-7 inches of space, Europe: half of that of Americans
-time consciousness: monochronic vs polychronic cultures
-mono: one thing at a time, scheduling, punctuality, and meeting deadlines
poly: many things happen at once, relationships and interactions, expect interruptions, little frustration with late or postponed events
Culture - Culture utilized laws tell us rules Everyday CULTURE
Cultural norms - kNow Orders and Rules Make Standards NORMS
-perspectives of a culture based on values and cultural norms
-aspect of culture that can be measure relative to other cultures
Hofstede's cultural dimensions (1980)
Differences in behavior are a consequence of culture
5 dimensions: Power/Distance, Individualism, Masculinity, Uncertainty/Avoidance Index, and Long Term Orientation
Individualism vs Collectivism
-relationship between individual and the group
-Individuals take care of themselves (France, Germany, Denmark, USA)
-values freedom, personal challenge, and personal time
-ties between individual and social groups
-extended social group: family, clans, friends
-respects elders, harmony, and traditions (Japan, Mexico, Korea)
-Wei et al. (2001) investigated the extent to which the dimension of individualism vs collectivism influenced conflict resolution communication styles
-600 managers (grouped into: Japanese, Americans, Chinese Singaporeans in multinational companies, and Chinese Singaporeans in local companies) working in companies in Singapore took survey on cultural dimension and conflict resolution style
-high individualist score = dominating conflict resolution style (typically Americans)
-collectivist = avoidant conflict resolution (typically Asians)
Long Term Orientation vs Short Term Orientation
-prominent in Asian countries
-how much society values long term or short term traditions and values
-based on Confucian work dynamism
-values persistence, loyalty, trustworthiness, respect for tradition, and face
-strong work ethic
-values education and training
-promotion of equality
-self-actualization is sought
-Basset (2004) investigated differences in Chinese and Australian students' perception of conflict resolution
-qualitative cross-cultural study
-asked to analyze a potential conflict situation between a Japanese supervisor and a Canadian visiting assistant teacher for their own cultural perspective
-confirmed individualist and collectivist dimensions
-confirmed the importance of long-term and short-term orientation in Chinese students
-the degree of inequality that exists - and is accepted - among people with and without power
-high power: hierarchies, placement, gaps in compensation, authority and respect
-low power: teamwork, considered equals, multiple perspectives and decisions
-how a society sticks with the traditional male and female roles
-high: male dominance, assertive, strong
-low: woman can do anything a man can do, equality
-degree of anxiety society members feel when in unknown or uncertain situations
-high: very formal business conduct, need and expect structure, clear and concise, nervousness spurs high levels of emotion and expression
-low: informal, long-term focus, accepting of change and risk, calm and contemplating
HOC'D- Hofstede on Cultural Dimensions
CLAM- Collectivists like all members
AWF- Asians Want Face
Research that studies one single culture to understand culture-specific behavior. researchers study behavior through the eyes of the people who live in that culture.
Emic: Bartlett (1932)
Bartlett mentioned the extraordinary ability of Swazi herdsmen to recall individual characteristics of their cattle. He explained that the Swazi culture revolves around the possession and care of cattle and it is important for people to recognize their animals because this is part of their fortune.
Emic: Mead (1935)
Documented numerous instances of cultural variations in 3 different cultures in New Guinea.
Arapesh people characterized by women and men having same sensitive and non-aggressive behavior as well as feminine personalities
Mundugamor = both men and women were ruthless, unpleasant, dominant and masculine
Tchambuli community = women were more dominant and men were more emotional and concerned about personal appearance.
Mead's demonstration of cultural differences in many respects a valid indication of how society scan influence gender-role development.
Emic: Bond and Smith (1996)
They carried out a meta-analysis of 133 conformity studies all using the Asch paradigm. The studies were carried out in the following 17 countries: USA, Canada, Britain, France, the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Portugal, Japan, Hong Kong, Fijiu, Zimbabwe, Congo (Zaire), Ghana, Brazil, Kuwait and Lebanon. The meta-analysis showed that more conformity was obtained in collectivistic countries like the Fiji Islands, Hong Kong and Brazil than in individualistic countries like the USA, the UK or France.
Bond and Smith's findings are consistent with the way the individualism/collectivism dimension was portrayed earlier. Members of collectivistic countries value conformity because it promotes supportive group relationships and reduces conflicts (Punetha et al., 1987).
Research that compares psychological phenomena across cultures to discover universal behaviors. the research aims to compare and contrast behaviors across cultures to find out whether the behavior is culture specific or universal.
Etic: Kashima and Triandis (1986)
Differences in description of success between Japanese and American participants. The American participants tended to explain their own success by dispositional attributions whereas the Japanese participants made situational attributions. American participants demonstrated the self-serving bias and Japanese participants demonstrated the self-effacing bias.
Etic: Halim and Chew (2008)
Their aim was to compare Singapore, Japan and US companies in their performance attributions. Nowadays self-enhancing self-serving bias tendencies exist in all countries due to globalization and rapid communication adopted in Western countries.
Emic: Eat Bugs, My Bestie (EBMB)
Emic, Bartlett, Mead, Bond/Smith
Etic: Every King Hopscotches (EKH)
Etic, Kashima/Triandis, Halim/Chew