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Final Exam Cultural Anthropology ANT2410

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In the article, Body Ritual Among the Nacirema, Horace Miner provides a good example of...
ethnographic description, but does not follow the guideline of considering both the emic and etic perspectives, leading to a biased portrayal of this cultural group.
What is the point of the Body Ritual Among the Nacirema article?
To force Americans to confront their own ethnocentrism by showing that American cultural practices could be seen as strange or weird.
What does it mean to take the Anthropological Perspective?
To avoid ethnocentrism and act as an objective outsider.
What does it mean to take an emic point of view?
To try to understand a culture's practices based on an insider's point of view.
A scholar in which subfield of Anthropology would try to reconstruct, describe, and interpret past human behavior and cultural patterns through material remains?
Archaeological Anthropology
Enculturation
The process through which an individual learns his or her culture.
Which characteristic of culture focuses on the fact that humans have a unique ability to associate signs with abstract meanings?
culture is symbolic
Which characteristic of culture can be seen in the way that we use our natural resources at very fast rates of consumption, leaving little behind for the future and often harming the environment in the process?
culture can be maladaptive
Which would be an example of a national culture?
-German/American
-Italian
-Christianity
-Soccer
Italian
Which of the following is considered a universal cultural trait?
-the English language
-monogamous marriages
-the incest taboo
-a food item particular to a certain culture
the incest taboo
In assessing the frequency of cultural traits, what is a cultural particularity?
A cultural trait that is found only in one culture.
When using cultural relativism, we are practicing which approach?
The emic approach
According to the reading, "Am I Judging This?" by John Omohundro, what does it mean when someone is experiencing Culture Shock?
This person is experiencing a defensive psychological response to prolonged removal from his or her own culture and interaction with another culture.
According to John Omohundro, which level of cultural relativism would argue that there are no human universals and that cultures should be able to maintain their traditional beliefs and practices, whatever they are, with no interference from outsiders?
The Strong Doctrine
Which interpretation for seal hunting in Newfoundland reflects the approach of Cultural Relativism?
Seal hunting was an important part of the economy and a crucial component of social identity for Newfoundland males and should have been considered within its cultural context.
What are the rules in the American Anthropological Association's Code of Ethics?
-Be open and honest about research intentions
-Always act in an ethical way and with the community's best interest in mind.
-Reciprocate in appropriate ways for the aid that is provided by the host community during research.
In which field of study in cultural anthropology do scholars compare and contrast different cultural groups and practices in order to provide a more generalized understanding of the human experience?
Ethnology
What is the primary research technique used to collect cultural data when an ethnographer goes to live with another community and document characteristics of their culture?
Participant Observation
What do cultural anthropologists call the ethnographic method in which family relationships are traced between community members and social ties are documented and recorded?
The Genealogical Method
Composed of the traditions and customs, transmitted through learning, that form and guide the beliefs and behavior of the people exposed to them. It is distinctly human.
culture
The tendency to view one's own culture as best and to judge the behaviors and beliefs of culturally different people by one's own standards.
ethnocentrism
The subfield of anthropology in which scholars study human society and culture. These researchers describe, analyze, interpret, and explain social and cultural similarities and differences.
cultural anthropology
What are the language abilities that nonhuman primates have demonstrated when working with primatologists?
-cultural transmission of language
-productivity
-displacement
-learning non-vocal communication techniques
What is it called in linguistics when sounds and symbols are grouped together to create words with particular meanings.
Morphemes
Who is the person that ethnographic researchers rely on from within a community who, because by accident, experience, talent, or training, can provide complete and useful information about life in that society.
Key Consultants
What type of ethnographic method is seen when ethnographers enter the field with a specific topic to investigate and collect data relevant to that issue?
Problem-Oriented Ethnography
Why do anthropologists strive to consider the etic and the emic perspectives in their ethnographic field work?
To identify and present both points of view.
What type of ethnographic method is this? Scenario:
A university professor began his career by providing the first ethnographic description of a culture in Brazil. Since then, he has returned to this society several times, to study various topics. Currently, he corresponds with community members about globalization, and is still writing articles about this group.
Longitudinal Research
What is the difference between a scholarly journal article and a popular magazine article?
Scholarly journal articles are written in the jargon of the discipline, but magazine articles include clear and simple writing.
Which 19th century theory saw human societies as comparable to living organisms that would increase in complexity through time, and sought one sequence of cultural development to explain how all cultures everywhere change through time?
unilineal cultural evolution
Proposed by Franz Boas, this approach to studying cultures emphasizes the distinct histories and circumstances that led to change in any given culture.
historical particularism
Which type of anthropological theory focuses on the material forces and economic factors within cultures in order to better understand cultural diversity and change?
cultural materialism
Which type of anthropological theory considers not only the ways that culture determines people's behavior, but also how individuals and groups can shape, influence, and change cultural structures?
agency theory
The study of which of the following would involve looking at how words are grouped into phrases and sentences that create more complex meanings?
Syntax
Which hypothesis states that linguistic abilities and the different languages that we speak shape our thoughts and mental processes (influences the way that we think).
The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
In which particular field of research does Deborah Tannen work?
Sociolinguistics
Which anthropologist described different typed of adaptive strategies in his studies of systems of economic production?
Yehudi Cohen
Which adaptive strategy characterized all existing human subsistence practices until about 10,000 years ago, when the first instances of food production came about?
foraging
Slash-and-burn is a subsistence technique traditionally seen in which type of adaptive strategy?
Horticulture
As pastoralists frequently need to move from place to place to find the necessary resources for their animals, a specific type of residential pattern has developed in which the entire community moves from place to place to care for the animals. What is this type of pastoral residential mobility called?
Pastoral nomadism
Within the mode of production, which part includes all of those resources, such as land, labor and technology, that are needed for the economic system to function?
Means of Production
At one end of the cultivation continuum lies the agricultural adaptive strategy with intensive use of the land, large labor input, and the use of more sophisticated farming technology. Which adaptive strategy lies at the other end of this continuum?
Horticulture
Anthropologists that believe that the adaptive strategy, economic system, or mode of production is most important in determining other aspects of the cultural system and influencing how the culture will change fall under which type of anthropological theory?
Cultural Materialism
What are some of the things that can happen when workers are alienated from the product of their labor, as often happens in modern industrial economic systems?
-workers no longer have control over the means or relations of production
-the work environment is highly depersonalized
-workers receive cash for their labor, which they can exchange for other goods
-workers do not feel pride in or personal identification with the products that they create
Which economic theory of motivation, proposed by Karl Polanyi, sees people as being motivated by non-monetary gain such as prestige, confort, social harmony, or other cultural values?
Substantivist economics
Which is the purest type of reciprocity, in which giving is done freely, between people in a personal relationship, and without expectations for immediate reciprocation?
generalized reciprocity
Which type of fund includes taxes or other types of payment owed to institutions of socio-political organization within a society?
rent fund
Which level of socio-political organization involves some type of permanent system for political regulation, clearly defined leader, and understood offices of authority, but does not yet have rigid institutions of population control, a judiciar system, law enforcement, and a fiscal system?
Chiefdom
Which type of social status is inherited at birth?
ascribed status
What is a social system in which there is no distinction based on hereditary social inequality?
egalitarian
What is the specific type of plural marriage that occurs when a man has more than one wife?
Polygyny
This type of descent traces kinship only through the female line, and is found in only 15% of the world's known cultural system.
Matrilineal
Which type of social status is seen in chiefdom sociopolitical organization, but not in tribes?
ascribed status
What is a personal characteristic that would identify someone's gender rather then their sex?
participation in typically male activities within his community
Which of the following is the most important part of the definition of gender?
it is culturally constructed
When a woman's death results in the wife's family sending a relative to replace the deceased woman and maintain the alliance even through the death of one of the spouses, what is formed?
sororate
What is defined as the manifestation of human creativity in music, performance, visual arts, storytelling, and literature, and is often called expressive culture?
art
What type of religion recognizes one supreme supernatural entity?
monotheistic
Which response to globalization/modernization is seen when a religious group views change as corrupting, preferring instead to return to more traditional values and a narrower belief system?
Fundamentalism
What type of theory in cultural anthropology focuses on interpreting the meaning behind works of art or the significance of particular beliefs in the supernatural?
Symbolic Anthropology
The most common type of marriage rule is that of out-marriage, in which people are not permitted to marry someone form within their own kinship group. What is another name for this type of marriage rule?
Exogamy
According to what we read in the "Report-talk and Rapport-talk" article, what is the Report-talk?
The type of communication that is conducted by men to establish and maintain status and power.
What are the cultural characteristics that tend to correlate with the foraging type of adaptive strategy?
-band level socio-political organization
-a nomadic, mobile lifestyle
-a division of labor based on gender, in which women and men each have their own specific role in the subsistence economy
-a focus on the nuclear family as the basic unit of kinship organization
What is the term given by Max Weber to describe the intensification of differences in wealth, power, and prestige within a society until there is a clearly recognized superordinate elite sector of society and a subordinate lower stratum?
social stratification
The Kalahari Desert is a hot and ry environmental setting that determines the !Kung way of life by forcing them to move from location to location in order to best procure available wild resources and water. Which theoretical perspective in cultural anthropology does this interpretation reflect?
Cultural Ecology
What do anthropologists call the type of social control in which subordinates comply with domination, even in situations of extremely abusive regimes, because they have internalized the inequality to the point that they accept it as the natural order?
Hegemony
What concept, defined by James Scott, involves subtle ways that people are able to exert control from the subordinate sector of society against the superordinate sector in hidden transcript, even in situations or extreme inequality or domination?
Weapons of the Weak
This type of kinship terminology splits the two lines of descent, differentiating between relatives on the mother's side of the family and those on the father's side, and then also distinguishes between relatives in the nuclear family and more extended relatives. It is the most complex terminology because it has the most possible terms.
Bifurcate Collateral Terminology
Many societies focus on the nuclear family as the basic family unit, and when a couple gets married, they move into their own residence and often start a family of procreation. What type of residence pattern is described here?
Neolocal
What is the Modern World System?
The global circumstance that we are in today, in which nations are economically and politically interdependent.
What are the seven theories in cultural anthropology?
-Unilineal Cultural Evolution
-Historical Particularism
-Cultural Determinism
-Cultural Materialism
-Cultural Ecology
-Symbolic Anthropology
-Agency theory
What is Socioeconomic stratification?
The intensification of social and economic differences based on wealth, power, and prestige, and resulting in a society with separate classes.
What is the political, social, economic, and cultural domination of a territory and its people by a foreign power for an extended period of time?
Colonialism
What is the most recent phase of large scale Colonialism in world history?
After the Industrial Revolution, European empires extended their rule over other nations, especially in Asia and Africa.
British and French colonialism influenced which sectors of other societies?
-the economy
-politics
-trade
-social institutions such as religion
What are the studies that focus on the interactions between European nations and the societies they colonized to try to understand how modern cultural identities have been shaped by past instances of colonialism
Postocolonial
The opinion that all underdeveloped communities are similar and will respond in equal ways to development initiatives has led to which common problem in development programs?
Underdifferentiation
What is the specific field of anthropology that applies anthropological data, techniques, perspectives, theory, and methods to the wider world that we live in, with the goal of solving contemporary social problems.
Applied Anthropology
What are some examples of Applied Anthropology?
-cultural anthropology aiding in the implementation of medical treatments abroad
-the use of ethnographic techniques to help a corporation run more smoothly
-the use of archaeological techniques to recover the remains of disaster victims
-studies of speech patterns among Americans to better understand modern social relations.
What is the branch of Applied Anthropology that focuses on social issues in, and the cultural dimensions of, economic development?
Development Anthropology
In "Witness to Genocide," what happened to the remains of the victims?
They were returned to their people for proper mortuary rites based on cultural beliefs.
Which anthropological term is defined as any position that determines where someone fits in society?
social status
Our identity is based on all of the many roles that we play in society. What is the situational negotiation of status identity?
We are able to shift the social roles that we express at any given time.
What is the most important part of anthropology's definition of race?
It is a social construct, it is not biological
What is the process through which a minority minority ethnic group takes on the cultural patterns and norms of the dominant majority group?
Assimilation
What do we call the belief that ethnic diversity is something good and desirable?
Multiculturalism
What is the term that refers to policies and practices that are rooted in prejudice and harm a group and its members?
Discrimination
Who first proposed this theory by arguing that human societies could be usefully compared to biological organisms and that their development could be understood through the laws of evolution?
Herbert Spencer
Which anthropologist is most closely associated with the theory of Cultural Materialism?
Marvin Harris
Which anthropologist is most closely associated with the theory of Cultural Ecology?
Julian Steward
Which ethnographic techniques did we see William Crocker utilizing while studying the Canela?
-participant observation
-longitudinal research
-key consultants
-conversations and interviews
What type of kinship system and residence rule are demonstrated by the Canela?
matrilineal and matrilocal
What are the three Residence Patterns?
1-Patrilocal
2- Matrilocal
3- Neolocal
What do we call the idea that by guiding the changes that are occurring in a particular society, more developed nations can help or benefit underdeveloped nations-an idea that is often used to justify international economic development?
Interventionist Philosophy
What is the common problem in development that results from poor planning in which the amount of change that is wanted, desired, or appropriate for the particular community is overestimated and the plans are too ambitious?
Overinnovation
"Witness to Genocide" is an article that we read about forensic archaeology in Iraq that is providing evidence for use in the International Justice case against crimes of genocide in the Anfal campaign. What specific evidence recovered by these applied anthropologists was especially useful to make this conviction?
-cultural items determined that the people were all of one ethnic group
-the many deceased infants concluded this was not military-related
-the individuals were killed systematically
What are the four types of
Socio-political Systems?
1-Bands
2-Tribes
3-Chiefdoms
4-States
What is the adaptive strategy studied by Lewis Henry Morgan argues that every human society had either passed through three stages: Savagery, Barbarism, and Civilization?
Unilineal Cultural Evolution
In the discussion about female genital mutilation, we came to understand how this is an important cultural norm for some socieites, and how culture is a powerful force that can shape human behavior. Which anthropological theory is this?
Cultural Determinism
What are the Three Types of Descent?
1-Bilateral Kinship
2-Matrilineal Descent
3-Patrilineal Descent
In the film about the !Kung foraging society and reading about the Inuit hunting society anthropologists consider environmental setting, the ecosystem, as key to defining cultural adaptions. What type of anthropological theory is this?
Cultural Ecology
In the reading, "Weapons of the Weak," by James Scott, we learned that individuals have the ability to find ways to exert their own power and can change their surroundings to attain their own freedoms. What is this non-determinist theory that sees each person as capable of exercising power and enacting change?
Agency Theory
Seven characteristics of culture
-learned
-shared
-symbolic
-different from nature
-all-encompassing
-integrated
-adaptive or maladaptive
Which characteristic of culture can be seen in the way we make our food choices based more on social goals (such as where we eat and who we eat with) and less with meeting our basic human needs?
Culture is different from Nature
What point of view argues that behavior in one culture
should not be judged by the
standards of another culture?
Cultural Relativism
What is female genital mutilation?
The non-medical cutting or removal of female genitalia for religious or cultural reasons.
What are the three levels of Cultural Relativism, as defined by John Omohundro?
-Moderate doctrine
-Comparison taboo
-Strong doctrine
Which level of cultural relativism argues that you should avoid ethnocentrism and judge a group only in the context of their own history and culture, not yours.
The Moderate Doctrine
What are the Five types of
Adaptive Strategies?
1-Foraging
2-Horticulture
3-Agriculture
4-Pastoralism
5-Industrialism
What level of cultural relativism does not want you to compare cultures by evaluating personality traits?
The Comparison Taboo
What are the nine ethnographic techniques?
1-Observation and Participant Observation
2-Conversations and Interviews
3-The Genealogical Method
4-Key Consultants
5-Life Histories
6-Local Beliefs and those of the Ethnographer
7-Problem-Oriented Research
8-Longitudinal Research
9-Team Research
Which Ethnographic Method seeks an intimate and illustrative example of community life by narrating the experiences of a few key people as they go through childhood, become young adults, and grow old in the community?
Life Histories
What is the hypothesis that argues that our brain structures shape the ways that humans communicate?
Noam Chomsky's Universal Grammar
Which type of anthropological theory argues that the differences in various cultures' environmental settings are the most important in determining cultural diversity and particular developments?
Cultural Ecology
What are the two types of
Durable Marriage Alliances?
1-Sororate
2-Levirate
In our example from Rapa Iti, we interpreted the cultural meaning having to do with the afterlife that was being expressed by their choral singing. What realm of anthropological theory does this interpretation come from?
Symbolic Anthropology
The branch of anthropological theory that stresses how cultures survive in reaction to forces of Westernization by focusing on local people's power and control over how their culture changes is called?
Agency Theory
What are three types of Marriage?
1-Monogamy
2-Polygyny
3-Polyandry
Is the following a characteristic of
Sex or Gender:
Male genitalia
Sex
Is the following a characteristic of
Sex or Gender:
Participating in typical male activities
Gender
Is the following a characteristic of
Sex or Gender:
Chromosomal makeup of one X and one Y chromosome
Sex
What type of religion recognizes multiple deities?
Polytheistic
What are the possible
Functions of Religion?
-Explanatory Purpose
-Ease Anxiety and Provide Comfort
-Provide Principles of Right and Wrong
-Create Group Solidarity
-Social Control
What are the Functions of Art?
-Convey a Moral Lesson
-Catharsis
-Art for Art's Sake
-Commemoration
-Express Social Norms
-Challenge Social Norms
What is the identification with an ethnic group that shares certain beliefs, values, habits, customs, and norms, often because of common background?
Ethnicity
In anthropology, what do we call an ethnic category that is a social construct but is assumed to have biological basis?
Race
What is intervention philosophy often used to justify?
Economic Development
Development Programs Must:
-Be culturally compatible with the community
-Respond to locally perceived needs
-Involve local men and women in planning and enactment
-Harness traditional organizations
-Be flexible
What is the Anthropological term that describes what results when groups come into continuous, firsthand contact?
Acculturation
What is the Anthropological term that describes how individuals come to learn their culture by absorbing the norms of the society around them?
Enculturation
Who are the people with early historic connections to the place where they live.
Who self-identify as a political group because they faced past oppression and now seek social, cultural, and political rights.
Indigenous People
What are the Goals of
Indigenous Rights Movements?
-Respect for Cultural Distinctiveness
-Political Reforms
-Rights to Land and Resources
-Stop to Discrimination
The marriage of one woman to one man
Monogamy
The marriage of a man to more than one wife.
Polygyny
The marriage of a woman two or more men at a time
Polyandry
When two or more brothers are married to the same woman.
Fraternal Polyandry
Kind of durable marriage alliance. If the wife dies, the families will try to get together to find a new wife to replace her, such as a sister or cousin.
Sororate
When the male/husband dies, the family works together to replace him.
Levirate
What is the talk that is used by women to build a connection and emphasize emotional self-disclosure and empathy?
Rapport-talk
The spread of cultural characteristics from the West to the rest of the world.
Westernization
The spread of one culture's characteristics at the expense of other cultures.
Cultural Imperialism
Indigenized cultural traits are appropriated by a new group, but modified to fit local culture.
Indigenized