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Rhetorical devices C block
Terms in this set (66)
Some of its types include ,irony, hyperbole, metaphor, allegory, litotes, pun, personification, simile, metonymy, and synecdoche, etc. Here are some examples of the types of trope.
- Using a vaguely suggestive, physical object to embody a more general idea: CROWN for royalty; the PEN is mightier than the SWORD. "If we cannot strike offenders in the heart, let us strike them in the wallet." Example: A hand to show helping/aid
-- Using a part of a physical object to represent the whole object: "Twenty eyes watched our every move" (i.e., ten people watched our every move). "A hungry stomach has no ears" (La Fontaine). "All hands on deck!" Example: The stomp of 100 feet
using one verb with two or more different objects. Example: The ball was snapped and later his leg was. Example: The man lost his coat and his temper.
giving human qualities to things that aren't human ex) "Tommy's tie dye'd shirt screamed for attention when he walked into the room"
saying something that is an exaggeration ex) "If I didn't turn in this essay on time, my life would be over"
saying something slightly negative to make a point ex) "At least you didn't end up in the hospital tonight. You are so lucky I stopped you from eating that poisonous mushroom."
crossing senses to create a sentence ex) "I could taste the elaborate fine china, organized perfectly on each table of the ballroom"
Oxymoron (plural oxymora, also called paradox) --
making a sentence that weirdly makes sense, " A renewal of the dead"
Figures of speech that deal with word order, sytax, letters, and sounds, rather than the meaning of words. "Cash rules everything around me cream get the money dollar, dollar bill y'all" or "It don't make sense, goin' to heaven with the goodie-goodies
Dressed in white, I like black Timbs and black hoodies"
When the writer establishes similar patterns of grammatical structure and length. "It was the best of times, it was the worst of times"
If the writer uses two parallel structures, the result is like this example: "The bigger they are, the harder they fall."
If there are three structures, it is like this example: "That government of the people, by the people, and for the people shall not perish from the earth." Or, as one student wrote, "Her purpose was to impress the ignorant, to perplex the dubious, and to startle the complacent." EX: "Be sincere, be brief, be seated."
Antithesis (plural: antitheses)
Balancing words, phrases, or ideas that are strongly contrasted, often by means of grammatical structure EX: "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind." - Neil Armstrong
Inverted word order from what one expects: "One ad does not a survey make." EX: "Go kill Darth Vader you will"-Probably Yoda
Repetition in reverse order EX: Quitters never win and winners never quit.
Taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out to create a sentence that flips. (Eg. "Ask not what your country can do for you - ask what you can do for your country.")
Omitting a word implied by the previous clause. (Eg. "So... What Happened?")
Using no conjunctions to create an effect of speed or simplicity. (Eg. "I came, I saw, I conquered.")
Using many conjunctions to achieve an overwhelming effect. (Eg. "He is brave, and honest, and good, and decent.")
placing things in rising order (E.g. Training for bball game, putting on your uniform, playing in the game, time is almost up and you are down by one point, you have the ball and it's all up to you...)
anticlimax or bathos (not to be confused with pathos)
placing things in the descending order (E.g. You hear something in your closet. It sounds like it's breathing. You carefully approach your closet, open the door, and it's just your cat.)
Appeals to an audience's sense of morality/trust; Achieved by projecting an image of credibility which supports the speaker's position (E.g. Making the audience feel sympathetic towards the citizens of Gotham because the Joker's actions are morally corrupt)
A Greek term that refers to suffering but has come to be associated with broader appeals to emotion; one of Aristotle's three rhetorical appeals (E.g. Using an image of the dying, sad grandma for the anti-assisted suicide commercial)
A Greek term that means "word"; an appeal to logic; one of Aristotle's three rhetorical appeals, e.g. "Freddy got a cookie and we are the same age. Therefore, I should also get a cookie."
Repetition of a sound in multiple words, e.g "lovely layered lilies"
the repetition of consonant sounds, e.g. "Humpty Dumpty was lumpy"
the repetition of vowel sounds, e.g. "Rain fell on the main drain"
Repetition of beginning clauses.
Repetition of concluding word(s)
A story or visual image with a second distinct meaning partially hidden behind its literal or visible meaning
A word, phrase, or clause to which a following pronoun refers.
An event or situation that may be interpreted in more than one way.
addressing someone that cannot answer
Balancing words, phrases, or ideas that are strongly contrasted, often by means of grammatical structure
A reference to a well-known person, place, event, literary work, or work of art
A comparison of two different things that are similar in some way Example: Bird is to nest, as baby is to crib
A brief narrative that focuses on a particular incident or event. Example: At a wedding, the best man says, "That reminds me of a wild party I went to with the groom, before he got that new ball and chain! If you had told me back then that he would choose just ONE woman, I never would have believed it!"
harsh, jarring noise
Example: Klarissa Klein drives an old, grumbling Cadillac which has a crumpled bumper and screaming, honking horn.
Rythmic rise and fall
Example: "It is not the sunset
Nor the pale green sky
Shimmering through the curtain
Of the silver birch,
Nor the quietness;
It is not the hopping
Of the little birds
Upon the lawn,
Nor the darkness
Stealing over all things
That moves me..."
A list of things, people, or events. (Examples: "On November 22 the fire in the San Gabriels was out of control. On November 24 six people were killed in automobile accidents, and by the end of the week the Los Angeles Times was keeping a box score of traffic deaths. On November 26 a prominent Pasadena attorney, depressed about money, shot and killed his wife, their two sons and himself. On November 27 a South Gate divorcée, twenty-two, was murdered and thrown from a moving car. On November 30 the San Gabriel fire was still out of control, and the wind in town was blowing eighty miles an hour. On the first day of December four people died violently, and on the third the wind began to break.")
use of informal language such as slang. (Examples: y'all - you all)
a slight discrepancy between what is said and what happens. (Examples: A police officer gets arrested/olympic swimmer dies by drowning.)
A metaphor developed at great length, occurring frequently in or throughout a work. (Examples: "All the world's a stage, and all the men and women merely players;
They have their exits and their entrances; And one man in his time plays many parts.")
peculiar to or characteristic of a given language or a particular group of people (e.g. Sick as a dog - means you are very ill)
Any combination of disparate elements that form a unified, single image (e.g. the part from Up that shows Ellie and Carl's life from when they met until Ellie died.)
A recurring element, such as an image, theme, or type of incident. (e.g. blood in Macbeth; red hat in Catch in the Rye)
descriptive language in which words and sentence patterns create an effect or atmosphere (e.g. The Pacific turned ominously glossy during a Santa Ana period, and one woke in the night troubled not only by the peacocks screaming in the olive trees but the eerie absence of surf.)
A 19th century artistic movement in which writers and painters sought to show life as it is rather than life as it should be (e.g. Mark Twain's "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer" ... talks about oppression, broken familial complexities, racism, and social injustice during that time period instead of the life everyone expects and hopes for)
This flexible term describes the variety, the conventions, and the purpose of the major kinds of writing. The four most common of these include exposition, argumentation, description, and narration. (e.g.
Exposition: textbooks, research papers, directions
Argumentation: persuasive writing, speeches, political speeches
Description: journal entries, sketches of people, description of a person
Narration: autobiographies, novels, biographies)
Methods and techniques that speakers use to achieve their speaking goals (e.g. logos, ethos, pathos, logical fallacies)
language that conveys a speaker's attitude or opinion with regard to a particular subject. It is broader than, and actually includes, tone as part of the writer's purpose. (e.g. adjusting tone and purpose to fit the audience)
A question asked merely for rhetorical effect and not requiring an answer. (e.g. Who knows?)
A writer's attitude toward his or her subject matter revealed through diction, figurative language, and organization on the sentence and global levels. (e.g. "This was the last fish we were ever to see Paul catch. My father and I talked about this moment several times later, and whatever our other feelings, we always felt it fitting that, when we saw him catch his last fish, we never saw the fish but only the artistry of the fisherman."--tone is nostalgic and sad. Excerpt from "A River Runs Through It" by Norman Maclean.)
the presentation of something as being smaller, worse, or less important than it actually is. (e.g. During the thunderstorm she said, "We're having a little bit of rain.")
the hidden or underlying meaning of something (e.g. "A student goes to turn in his paper. After looking through two pages, his teacher asks, "Are you sure you want to turn this in?'" This implies that the student's work is not complete and needs more work.)
A sentence that presents its central meaning in a main clause at the end. The independent clause is preceded by a phrase or clause that cannot stand alone. The effect is to add emphasis and structural variety.
ex: Positive thinking, by helping us stay focused and maintaining a good attitude, is important for a happy life.
A sentence in which the main independent clause is elaborated by the successive addition of modifying clauses or phrases (main clause is at the beginning)
ex: He dipped his hands in the bichloride solution and shook them--a quick shake, fingers down, like the fingers of a pianist above the keys.
A sentence constructed so that the predicate comes before the subject (ex: In the woods I am walking.)
ex: He is happy. Is he happy?
description, exposition, persuasion, narration
the four rhetorical modes
Description ex: The sunset filled the entire sky with the deep color of rubies, setting the clouds ablaze.
Read more at
Exposition ex: The 21st century is a great time to be alive. The development of fantastic technologies and lively discussions on pressing issues are some of the amazing things to look forward to.
Persuasion ex: Brand of chips is the crispiest, crunchiest and most delicious brand of chips you will ever taste. Buy a bag today.
Read more at
Narration ex: I have visited the monstrous trees of the Sequoia National Forest, stood on the edge of the Grand Canyon and have jumped on the beds at Caesar's Palace in Lake Tahoe. However, I have discovered that when reflecting on my childhood, it is not the trips that come to mind, instead there are details from everyday doings; a deck of cards, a silver bank or an ice cream flavor."
Cumulative sentence. Know definition and how to write one.
a sentence in which the main independent clause is elaborated by the successive addition of modifing clauses or phrases. ex: "He dipped his hands in the bichloride solution and shook them--a quick shake, fingers down, like the fingers of a pianist above the keys."
Periodic sentence. Know definition and how to write one.
A sentence that departs from the usual word order of English sentences by expressing its main thought only at the end. In other words, the particulars in the sentence are presented before the idea they support.
ex: In spite of heavy snow and cold temperatures, the game continued.
Telegraphic sentence. Know definition and how to write one.
concise sentences typically containing five words or less
ex. He walked across the street.
A mild or indirect word or expression substituted for one considered to be too harsh or blunt when referring to something unpleasant or embarrassing: "We are downsizing"
ex. Departed instead of died
The false assignment of an event, person, scene, or language to a time when the event, person, scene, or word did not exist
Ex. The use of rap in the Hamilton musical
A concise statement that expresses succinctly a general truth or idea, often using rhyme or balance
Ex. An apple a day keeps the doctor away.
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