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the fundamental attribution error
Assuming that the reason a person is obese is because he or she has no willpower is an example of
the false consensus effect
Tom is surprised to find that not all of his friends think about affirmative action in the same way he does. Tom's surprise can be explained by
The fundamental attribution error is focused on others, while self-serving bias is focused on the self.
Which of the following statements is most correct?
She will do poorly on the exam because of stereotype threat.
A woman is concerned that if she does poorly on a math exam, she will confirm the stereotype that women are not good at math. What is likely to happen and why?
Tori did well on her first exam in psychology. She congratulated herself for studying hard and being naturally gifted. When she failed her second exam, she became angry at the professor for creating an unfair test and for not explaining the concepts well. Tori's reactions are an example of
Matthew did poorly when trying out for his school's soccer team. To make himself feel better about his performance, he said to himself "at least I wasn't as bad as Brad." Matthew's self-talk is an example of
Tyrone is supportive of same-sex marriage. However, the political candidate for whom he plans to vote opposes same-sex marriage. Tyrone is likely experiencing
An employer who thinks that members of a specific group are inferior is an example of _____; the employer's refusing to hire members of that group is an example of _____.
When groups work together to achieve a common goals, prejudice is decreased.
What does social psychological research have to say about decreasing within-group prejudice?
Egoism involves helping others with the expectation of help in return, while altruism involves helping others with no expectation of help in return.
What is the difference between egoism and altruism?
the bystander effect
After a movie has ended, an elderly man falls when walking down the steps of the crowded theater. There is an extremely long pause before anyone moves to help the man. This is an example of
the availability heuristic
Marilyn likes to watch reality television shows about police officers. She notices that when the police officers make drug-related arrests on the show, they invariably arrest very poor people. Marilyn thus believes that poor people are much more likely to use drugs than are people who are not poor. Marilyn's belief is an example of
Kim was offered a job and wanted to get a salary of $35,000 per year. When her soon-to-be employer asked her what salary she expected, she said $40,000. She was confident that she would not get that high of a salary but rather expected her employer to reject that figure for a figure closer to $35,000. What strategy is Kim using?
A person who has a desire to be very close to his or her romantic partner and is fearful that his or her partner will leave is likely to have which of the following attachment styles?
Sometimes soldiers will commit acts of violence against others because they were ordered to do so by superior officers. This is an example of
a positive illusion
A C student thinks of himself as above average on intelligence. This is an example of
"I can't believe she's so overweight. She must be a very lazy person."
Which of the following statements would indicate that the speaker is making an internal attribution?
deliver electrical shocks to another person.
In his famous studies on obedience, Stanley Milgram asked participants to
social exchange theory
Which theory says that people seek to maximize rewards and minimize costs in their personal relationships?
the risky shift phenomenon
Khalid and some of his friends have decided to pool their money together to invest in the stock market. Individually, each of them is usually a relatively conservative investor, but as a group they wound up making some very daring investment choices. This illustrates the concept of
committing the fundamental attribution error
As a news anchor, Craig is used to people approaching him to argue about things he reported. Though he loves his job, he is constantly explaining that just because he reports on an issue doesn't mean he personally subscribes to it. In situations like this, people are
Have them work on group projects, where no group can succeed without everyone working together.
Two schools, formerly rivals, recently merged. Needless to say, many of the students are not happy about being in the same school. The school officials want to help the two groups to get along better. Which of the following techniques is likely to be most effective?
The first day of class, Corey is assigned to sit next to a man wearing athletic pants and a baseball cap with a sports logo. Being overweight, Corey assumes that his new classmate will treat him poorly, so he goes out of his way to ignore the other student. Corey's negative evaluative reaction is referred to as
A good way to help yourself quit smoking is to spend time educating other people about the dangers of smoking. Because one action (smoking) is incongruent with the other action (telling others about dangers related to smoking), you will probably experience
the central route to persuasion
The brainiacs at the Optimum Computing Corporation have developed a superior notebook computer. The advertising department knows that the purchase of a notebook is a significant investment for the average computer buyer. Since their product is more expensive than their competitors', they will have to convince their target audience that the technology is extraordinary enough to warrant the additional cost. Which of the following approaches would be MOST likely to achieve their goal?
the peripheral route to persuasion
The upscale Ethan Grant Company has created a new cologne called "Ethan" for men and a "matching" perfume called "Ethan Femme." The company's advertising executives know that their new fragrances will be competing with hundreds of others and that the human nose can only discriminate among so many smells. They know there's no way they can logically convince someone to pay an exorbitant price for Ethan and Ethan Femme; instead, they will need to rely on
Glynnis has been involved in her college's theater department for several years. When she first gets a script she practices alone, repeating lines until they sound and feel realistic to her. She always notices that her performance improves significantly when she participates in dress rehearsals with other actors due to
normative social influence
Galatea attended a high school that encouraged and emphasized creativity and the arts until her junior year. When her mother's employer transfers her to another state, Galatea and her father must also move. Because there isn't a special arts magnet in the new town, Galatea is enrolled in the public high school. On her first day she dresses as she always has—an eclectic, funky style that is uniquely hers. The other students, who appear to Galatea to be dressed in boringly similar styles, stare and laugh at her appearance, and by the end of the day Galatea is uncomfortable. If she conforms to be accepted by her new schoolmates, Galatea will have succumbed to
Members of some hate groups cover their faces and sometimes their entire bodies while they mistreat their targeted group. This can also happen if the hate group is extremely large or a "mob mentality" forms. In these situations, people find it easier to participate in crimes they would not normally commit due to
As Theo leaves his grocery store, a woman at a table near the door asks him to donate $10 to a cause that Theo has heard of but in which he has no personal investment. Theo politely declines; $10 feels like a lot of money to give to a charity that has no particular meaning for him. The woman asks if he'd be willing to give one dollar instead, and Theo pulls some change out of his pocket and drops some quarters into the bucket on the table. The solicitor used the
When the Enron Corporation went bankrupt in 2001, the collapse was the largest corporate failure in history, and the name has since become synonymous with corporate fraud. Enron's board of directors failed to monitor, question, or analyze Enron's management and business practices, and billions of dollars' worth of unscrupulous activities were conducted to make Enron look more financially stable than it was. Though the board had access to evidence that something was wrong with Enron's business practices, a culture had developed in which conformity was encouraged and diverse views were not acceptable. In other words, Enron fell prey to
American Psychiatric Association
What organization publishes the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders?
Ken went to the emergency room because he was short of breath, had a rapid heart beat, was sweating, and feared that he was having a heart attack and would die. When the physician examined Ken, she was unable to find anything physically wrong with him. When she questioned Ken further, he told her that these physical symptoms occurred right before he was to give an important presentation. Which of the following is a possible explanation for Ken's symptoms?
post-traumatic stress disorder
A soldier who survived a bloody battle finds that she has recurrent nightmares, avoids her military friends, and jumps when she hears a loud noise. Based on these symptoms, what disorder does she most likely have?
both have an intense fear of becoming fat
What do people with anorexia have in common with people with bulimia?
A deficiency in which neurotransmitter has been implicated as a potential cause of generalized anxiety disorder?
Genetic heritage causes a predisposition to mental illness, but environmental and cognitive/emotional factors must be present for mental illness to develop.
Which of the following statements is most consistent with the biopsychosocial model?
Someone who finds that he has traveled to a new town and has no memory of his old life is likely suffering from
a manic episode
Shelia's friends noticed that her behavior changed suddenly. She began to stay up late into the night, rarely sleeping. She impulsively decided to paint every room in her house and to buy all new furniture for her house. She also started drinking more and engaging in risky behavior, such as unprotected sex. Her friends noticed that when she spoke, she spoke very rapidly and quickly jumped from subject to subject. What may Shelia be experiencing?
Generalized anxiety disorder involves anxiety about a large variety of things, whereas phobic disorder involves anxiety about a specific thing.
How are generalized anxiety disorder and phobic disorder different?
In order for a person to be classified as having major depressive disorder, he or she must experience a depressive episode that lasts at least
Depression is related to neurotransmitter deregulation, genetics, and cognitive processes.
Which of the following statements is most correct?
Depression can be caused by people having unrealistic views of themselves and the world. This explanation of depression is consistent with which theory?
People who suffer from borderline personality disorders often have all of the following symptoms except
this ensures that context is taken into account when making a diagnosis.
the DSM has five axes because
it does not allow for consistent diagnoses
Which of the following is NOT a valid criticism of the DSM?
Which of the following is NOT a criterion for distinguishing "normal" from "abnormal" behavior?
a panic disorder
Mireille began having brief episodes of overwhelming anxiety about a year ago. She doesn't know what causes them, but she has had them in the grocery store, at busy restaurants, and once while driving. Her heart pounds, she has difficulty breathing, and sometimes she feels like her body no longer belongs to her. She is afraid she will go crazy and embarrass herself in front of other people. Based on this information, Mireille may have
Renee is a social worker in an urban community mental health center. She has just seen a new client who has depression, which she codes on
Scott was tried for and convicted of murdering his wife. He showed little emotion during his trial. Though he was tearful in some interviews just after she disappeared, given his apparent lack of remorse the tears may have been an attempt to manipulate people into believing he was not involved. Scott demonstrates characteristics of someone with antisocial personality disorder, which is coded on
Thirty-year-old Armand feels compelled to save objects that others might throw away. He is afraid that he will discard something he later will need, so his home is filled with old newspapers, empty boxes, worn-out clothing, antiquated computer equipment, and even the seeds from the fruit and vegetables he has eaten. Armand's neighbors have complained to the homeowner's association because he has been forced to store some things outside his home. He is embarrassed by his need to hoard objects, but he is overcome by dread if he tries to throw things away. Based on this information, Armand may have
post-traumatic stress disorder
In movies that focus on war (e.g., Born on the Fourth of July, Apocalypse Now, First Blood), soldiers who have returned from the frontlines often struggle with overwhelming anxiety, hypervigilance, depression, and flashbacks. In many cases, these characters abuse alcohol, are suicidal, and have a strained or angry relationship with spouses. These characters have
a personality disorder
Killian lets her husband keep all the financial records for the family, and she refuses to make any decisions on her own. She is so needy that if she encounters even a minor unexpected problem during her day, she calls him at work to ask his advice. This behavior cuts across all situations, causes problems in her relationships with other people, and seems to be Killian's only real approach to dealing with the world. Killian may have
Metal band Metallica's song "Fade to Black" includes lyrics like "No one but me can save myself, but it's too late/ Now I can't think, think why I should even try/Yesterday seems as though it never existed/Death greets me warm, now I will just say goodbye." This song was written during one of the band's lowest periods and appears to be about
Shirley's boyfriend can have bipolar disorder AND still be a great guy. People with psychological disorders have strengths and weaknesses, just like everybody else.
Laverne (a psychologist) is talking to her friend Shirley, whose boyfriend was just diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Shirley says, "There's no way he's mentally ill! After all, he's a great guy!" How should Laverne reply?
borderline personality disorder
Margie has a long-standing pattern of unstable and intense relationships and mood. She has a history of trauma and is sometimes inappropriately seductive. She abuses drugs, has threatened suicide several times, and cuts her arms with a razor blade when she feels particularly bad. She desperately tries to keep others from abandoning her, partly because she has a very unstable sense of self. If she has a personality disorder, it is MOST likely that she has
There may be a physiological cause for this weight loss, but there is nothing to indicate that she should be diagnosed with a psychological disorder.
Lori-An has recently lost a lot of weight. She is now unhealthily skinny. She is concerned by this, and has gone to see her doctor. What diagnosis might her doctor make?
unconditional positive regard
Which of the following techniques is most associated with humanistic therapy?
get clients to hold more realistic expectations for themselves and the world.
The goal of rational-emotive behavior therapy is to
A person who is afraid of snakes is taken to a zoo by his therapist and made to sit in a room with dozens of snakes. This is an example of
A person who is trying to quit smoking wears a rubber band around her wrist. Every time she has a craving to smoke, she snaps the rubber band. In what type of therapeutic technique is she engaging?
encouraging someone to buy himself or herself a new pair of shoes for losing 15 pounds
Which of the following techniques would be consistent with a behavioral approach?
meeting several times a week for a few months, rather than once a week for a period of years.
Modern psychodynamic therapies typically differ from traditional Freudian therapy in all of the following ways EXCEPT
clients can interact in genuine relationships, which is more like real life than individual therapy.
Group therapy can be helpful for clients because
When the therapist lets the client know that he or she understands and accepts the client, it is known as
six months of therapy
Research has demonstrated that improvements from psychotherapy are most apparent during the first
A person with a phobia of horses would likely benefit most from which type of therapy?
Ciara's therapist believes that her problems are rooted in her childhood and her unconscious, and that he can help her uncover the dynamics responsible for her problem. This awareness, also called ______________, will allow her to adjust her behavior.
Ciara's therapist asks her to lie on the couch and talk about whatever comes to mind without censoring anything. This technique, called ______________, is meant to help the client and therapist find recurring themes or issues that can provide clues to the unconscious cause or causes of the problem.
Since Dr. Callum began making connections between Dylan's current romantic problems and his childhood experiences, Dylan has been "forgetting" therapy appointments or canceling them at the last minute, and when he does show he is invariably late. Dylan's avoidance pattern is called
Dr. Gofer is a family therapist, working with a couple (Erin and Julia) and their daughter Avi. One of Dr. Gofer's goals is to show that he understands each person's feelings, that those feelings are valuable, and that each person has something positive to offer. Dr. Gofer is using the technique of
Though Dr. York has never experienced many of the things his clients have, he is committed to putting himself "in their shoes" and trying to understand the world from their perspective. This is called
Though some of Masato's graduate school professors taught him that a therapist should always act as a "blank screen" onto which clients can project their unconscious conflicts, Masato prefers to maintain consistency between the way he feels and the way he behaves. He expresses his feelings honestly to clients, regardless of whether they are positive or negative. Masato's professors were probably ________________ therapists.
Takeshi is seeing Dr. Shakar to help her deal with her social phobia. Early in treatment, they built a list of 15 steps beginning with low-anxiety scenarios and ending with high-anxiety scenarios. Over time, they have conquered many of the situations on the list, and it is time for Takeshi to try staying relaxed while walking down a busy street. The approach Dr. Shakar is using with Takeshi is called
Tiegan's sister has just been diagnosed with bipolar disorder. The sister is being hospitalized while a medication regimen is established to stabilize her moods. Of the following, which medication are doctors MOST likely to use?
in treating severe depression, especially if there is a high risk of suicide.
Dr. Henry Clerval is a proponent of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), though he believes it should only be used in the most extreme circumstances. Historically, ECT was applied to a wide range of disorders, but today it is only used
"No one specific type of therapy will necessarily be the most effective. You need to think about your own preferences and strengths, and find a therapist with whom you feel comfortable."
Lakeshia has been suffering from depression, and wants to know which type of psychotherapy is most likely to lead to successful treatment of her symptoms. What would be the best advice to give Lakeshia?
theory of reasoned action
A psychologist is interested in increasing safer sex behaviors. In developing an intervention to increase safer sex behaviors, she focuses on the ways in which participants' friends view condom usage. Her inclusion of social group norms in her intervention is consistent with which theory of health behavior?
Consciousness-raising is most important during which stage of the stages of change model?
Someone who is researching different types of smoking cessation aids (for example, nicotine gum and nicotine patches) is in which stage of the stages of change model?
After losing her job, a woman sits down to generate a list of ways that she can cut expenses and possibly pick up some extra income. She is engaging in
A student has been experiencing stress because she has been struggling in her classes all semester. After a while, she realizes that she has developed a host of physical symptoms, such as fatigue, runny nose, and coughing. In what stage of the general adaptation syndrome is this student?
increased physical activity
The link between extreme stress and cardiovascular problems can be explained by all of the following except
melinda's preferred method of handling stress
Melinda has developed a chronic illness. A health psychologist is working with Melinda's physician. Which of the following would the health psychologist be most interested in evaluating?
taking him to a hospital to visit patients with smoking-related emphysema
What would be the best approach to help Marcus quit smoking if he is in the precontemplation stage?
Which theory focuses on the distinction between intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation?
alarm, resistance, exhaustion
In order, starting from the first stage, what are the stages of the general adaptation syndrome?
external locus of control
Which of the following is NOT helpful when it comes to reducing stress and leading a healthier life?
An individual believing that he or she can successfully engage in a behavior that promotes health is an example of
Which element of the Type A personality is most strongly related to the risk of heart disease?
determining whether an event represents a challenge, harm, or loss
What is involved in the stage of primary appraisal?
Viggo needs to take an extended leave of absence from work for personal reasons. The remaining employees are required to perform Viggo's duties, and Dewitt is the only one who understands how to do many of them. Though Dewitt's body is unable to maintain the alarmed state it entered when he learned of the additional work, he remains "stressed out" over the weeks that follow. He hopes Viggo will return before he becomes truly overwhelmed. Dewitt is in the _______________________ stage of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS).
Viggo needs to take an extended leave of absence from work for personal reasons. The remaining employees are required to perform Viggo's duties, and Dewitt is the only one who understands how to do many of them. Though Dewitt's body is unable to maintain the alarmed state it entered when he learned of the additional work, he remains "stressed out" over the weeks that follow. If the stressor of additional responsibility lasts too long, Dewitt could become sick and have trouble functioning himself. This is the _______________________ stage of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS).
Dakarai values winning about all else. He hates being passed on the highway, losing an account to another company, or being passed up for a promotion. He is impatient with the other members of his work team, and he's more likely to get into a shouting match than ask for help if something goes wrong. Dakarai is displaying a ____________________ behavior pattern.
Rafferty recently completed a fitness assessment, and his results were poorer than he expected. His weight is significantly higher than it should be, he has several unhealthy habits, and he is unable to lift weight comparable to others his age. Rafferty's physician suggests _________________ exercise, which will elevate his heart rate and increase his body's need for oxygen.
No. Smoking is the single largest cause of preventable death, and the only way to offset the negative effects of smoking is to quit.
Allegra tries to lead a healthy life. She maintains a vegetarian diet, avoids fatty foods, and gets a flu shot every year. She tells others that her only vice is smoking. While she knows that she should quit, she believes that her otherwise healthy lifestyle will offset the effects of tobacco. Is she right?
using emotion-focused coping
At 65, Terry is diagnosed with cancer. Because the idea of cancer terrifies him, he refuses to believe that he has a sickness and does not get any treatments. When his physician informs him that his case has become terminal because he did not act, Terry tells his friends that his doctor doesn't know what he's talking about. Terry is
Catherine has wanted to lose weight for several years, and a magazine article on the dangers of obesity made her decide to finally take action. Today she went to the market and bought healthy foods, then made herself her favorite high-fat dinner and dessert, knowing she would need to eat these kinds of foods in moderation in the future. According to the transtheoretical model of change, Catherine is in the ____________ stage.
She should focus primarily on non-risky sexual activities (such as kissing), but also remind students that if they DO have sex, they can make condom usage an enjoyable part of the activity.
Ms. Summer is a high school health teacher who is trying to promote safer sex practices among her students. What is the best advice you can give her?
Sort of. Shelley's weight is indeed cause for concern. However, she presumably has good cardiorespiratory fitness, which will definitely help to protect her from illness.
Shelley is overweight, according to the BMI. However, Shelley successfully ran a marathon last month. Her husband Fred insists that she cannot possibly be healthy, given her weight. Is he correct?
Naomi recently got laid off from her job. After she got the news, she sat down to make a list of what she can do to help minimize her financial hardship. For example, she determined that she can borrow some money from her parents, and put her love of animals to good use by getting part-time work as a dog walker. This process of evaluating her resources is known as
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