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Environmental Legislation Drastata
Terms in this set (44)
Clean Air Act
Established primary and secondary air quality standards. Required EPA and states to develop implementation plans. Sets limits and goals to reduce mobile air source pollution, stationary source (industrial) air pollution and ambient air quality standards. Addresses ozone depletion and acid precipitation.
Clean Water Acts
Regulates and enforces all discharge into surface water and wetland destruction/construction.
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation Liability Act
Established federal authority for emergency response and clean-up of hazardous substances that have been spilled, improperly disposed, or released into the environment. Developed system of assessing hazardous waste sites. Established a trust fund from taxes on companies to help pay for cleanup.
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species
Controls the exploitation of endangered species through international legislation. Bans hunting, capturing, and selling of threatened species and bans the import of ivory. Ensures that international trade practices do not cause threat to species survival.
Emergency Planning & Community Right-To-Know Act
Requires reporting/notification of toxic releases into the community environments: the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI); Encourages emergency preparedness response for chemical releases.
Endangered Species act
Protects species that are considered to be threatened or endangered, especially from growth and development. Includes habitat. Also includes migratory birds and their habitats.
Agreement among 150 nations requiring greenhouse gas emission reduction to prevent anthropomorphic climate change. The USA is one of the only major global economies that refused to sign the treaty.
Banned the production of aerosols and initiated the phase out of all CFC's that contribute to stratospheric ozone layer deletion.
Safe Drinking Water Act
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is allowed to set the standards for groundwater (aquifer) and drinking water quality and oversee all of the states, localities, and water suppliers who implement these standards.
Soil and Water Conservation Act
Provides for a continuing appraisal of US soil, water, and related resources, including fish and wildlife habitats, and a soil and water conservation program to assist private landowners.
Solid Waste Disposal Act
Also known as RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act). To find better and more efficient ways to dispose of solid waste; promotes shredding and separation of waste and burning of remaining materials to produce stream or generate electricity; promotes recycling. Also includes rules about hazardous waste disposal.
Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act
Requires restoration of abandoned mines. Regulates environmental effects of coal mining in the US.
Allowed congress to set aside over 9 million acres federally owned land for preservation.
A conservation law prohibiting the transportation of illegally captured or prohibited animals across state lines. It was the first federal law protecting wildlife, and is still in effect, though it has been revised several times. Today the law is primarily used to prevent the importation or spread of potentially dangerous non-native species.
Taylor Grazing Act
A United States federal law that regulates grazing of federal public land. The Secretary of the Interior has the authority to handle all of the regulation, and he became responsible for establishing grazing districts. Before these districts are created there must be a hearing held by the state.
National Environmental Policy Act
Authorized the Council on Environmental Quality as the oversight board for general conditions; directs federal agencies to take environmental consequences into account in decision making; requires EIP statement be prepared for every major federal project having environmental impact.
International Environmental Protection Act
Authorized the president to assist countries in protecting and maintaining wildlife habitat and provides an active role in conservation by the Agency for International Development.
Federal Water Pollution Control Act
Authorized the surgeon general of the Public Health Service, with others, to prepare comprehensive programs for eliminating or reducing the pollution of interstate waters and tributaries and improving the sanitary condition of surface and underground waters.
Toxic Substances Control Act
EPA is given the ability to track the 75,000 industrial chemicals currently produced or imported into the United States. EPA repeatedly screens these chemicals and can require reporting or testing of those chemicals that pose an unreasonable risk.
Hazardous Material Transportation Act
Governs the transportation of hazardous materials and wastes.
Oil Pollution Act
It states "A company cannot ship oil into the United States until it presents a plan to prevent spills that may occur. It must also have a detailed containment and cleanup plan in case of an oil spill emergency.
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
Management of non-hazardous and hazardous solid waste including landfills and storage tanks. Set minimal standards for all waste disposal facilities and for hazardous wastes.
Moratorium on mineral exploration for 50 years in Antarctica.
Consumer Product Safety Act
Purpose is to protect the public against unreasonable risks to injury associated with consumer products.
Pollution Prevention Act
Requires facilities to reduce pollution at its source. Reduction can be in volume or toxicity.
Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act
Requires purchase of a stamp by waterfowl hunters. Revenue generated is used to acquire wetlands. Since its inception, the program has resulted in the protection of approximately 4.5 million acres (18,000 km^2) of waterfowl habitat.
Wild and Scenic Rivers Act
Selected rivers in the United States are preserved for possessing outstandingly, remarkable scenic, recreational, geologic, fish and wildlife, historic, cultural, or other similar values.
Mining Act of 1872
United States federal law that authorizes and governs prospecting and mining for economic minerals, such as gold, platinum, and silver, on federal public lands.
"Controlled Use, or "Scientific Management" of natural resources. Protection of plants, animals, and habitats to maintain health of the natural world.
Remaining wilderness areas on public lands should be left untouched; conservation of the natural environment.
To bring back to former condition (Former Natural State/Condition), active restoration seeks to reestablish a diverse, dynamic community at sites that have been degraded.
Most often used with cleanup of chemical contaminants in a polluted area; removal of pollution and/or contaminants in the environment. Sites are usually targeted for redevelopment of some kind.
Repairing/Rehabilitating a damaged ecosystem, most often by providing a substitute or replacement area; frequently involves wetland ecosystems. Credits are given for improved conditions and debits are assessed for damage to the area.
Typically used to describe chemical or physical manipulations carried out in severely degraded sites, such as open-pit mines or large-scale construction. Returning degraded areas to an improved state. Never really expected to be the same as before the damage.
Department of Health and Human Services
Improves the health, safety and well-being of Americans.
Environmental Protection Agency
Protects human health and the environment. They conduct research, assessment, and education on environmental issues. They have the power to enforce standards and laws, impose sanctions. They encourage pollution prevention and conservation.
Bureau of Land Management
Regulates 253 million acres of public land. Also manages 700 million acres of underground mineral resources. Their job is to sustain health, diversity, and productivity of these lands.
National Park Service
Manages all national parks and most monuments and historical properties.
Department of Agriculture
Develops and executes federal public policy on all agriculture, livestock, and food. Protects farmers, promotes trade, and insures food safety.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Organization
Focuses on conditions of oceans and the atmosphere. Dangerous weather warnings, charts of oceans and sky, guide to use of these resources, and they conduct environmental research.
US Fish and Wildlife Service
Management, conservation and enhancement of fish, wildlife and natural habitat.
US Geological Survey
Studies and maps the landscape and resources of the US, and the natural hazards that threaten it. Basically a fact-finding organization, with no regulatory responsibility. Purely scientific.
Department of Energy
Controls US policy with regard to safety and handling of nuclear material. They manage the weapons program, generation of energy from nuclear power, and disposal of radioactive waste for the entire country.
Council on Environmental Quality
Works with US agencies to develop environmental policies and initiatives.
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