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Bio 4th Exam Ch 17-21
Terms in this set (50)
transcription factors are necessary to initiate transcription in prokaryotes
What does the word "proteomics" refer to?
the study of the full protein set encoded by a genome
what is an expressed sequence tag (EST)
A probable gene that codes for a known sequence of mRNA, as identified by a computer from genome sequence data
How does changing its pattern of gene expression help a prokaryote survive?
It allows the organism to adjust its metabolism to fit changing environmental conditions
Reverse transcriptase is useful in genetic engineering because it can be used to produce
cDNA sequence that represents only the coding portion of the gene
Which of the following is an important tumor-suppressing gene?
The human genome is the largest known genome to date, in terms of total number of nucleotide bases.
What is a pseudogene?
A sequence of DNA that is very similar to a real gene but which does not actually yield a functional product
The first cloned cat, named CC, was a calico, but her calico pattern looked significantly different from that of her genetically identical parent. Why?
inactivation in the embryo is random and thus produces different expression patterns
Which of the following DNA sequences is most likely to be a restriction site?
When RNA polymerase transcribes DNA to RNA, which of the following is true?
When it reads an A in the DNA, it transcribes a U
Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding prions?
They are composed of RNA
The cricket genome is 11 times larger than that of the fruit fly, but has about the same number of genes in total. From this it may reasonably be concluded that
crickets have more noncoding DNA.
The majority of the human genome is composed of noncoding DNA.
Because the genetic code is essentially the same for all organisms, it's possible to take a gene from one species and put it into another and have it be expressed there.
Proteosomes degrade proteins
Your muscle cells are different from your nerve cells mainly because
they express different genes.
What is a TATA box?
A promoter sequence commonly found in eukaryotes
What is a provirus?
A sequence of viral DNA that has been inserted in the genome and which later may be used to produce more viruses
Histone acetylation causes chromatin to become more condensed
Duplication events can occur for
All of the above
A researcher wants to clone a gene using the scheme below. Fill in the missing step. 1. Extract plasmid DNA from bacterial cells 2. Cut both the plasmid DNA and the target DNA with a restriction enzyme 3. Mix the cut DNA together 4. ? 5. Transform bacteria with the recombinant DNA 6. Screen the resulting bacterial colonies
Add ligase to the DNA mixture
Cytoplasmic determinants are signaling molecules found in an egg that are key in establishing the body plan of the developing organism following fertilization
In animal cells, embryonic stem cells differ from adult stem cells in
embryonic stem cells are more pluripotent than adult stem cells.
Chimpanzees have one more chromosome than humans. However, mapping of the chromosomes has revealed that one of the human chromosomes is very highly similar to two of the chimpanzee chromosomes put together. This indicates that
humans and chimpanzees shared a common ancestor, but their lines diverged and their chromosome structures changed after that
What does ubiquitin do?
It tags proteins for destruction
What is a retrovirus?
A virus that is able to convert RNA to DNA
Why might a laboratory be using dideoxy nucleotides (ddNTPs)?
To sequence fragments of DNA
An operon consists of a control element, a promoter, a gene, and an enhancer.
Which of the following statements is true of proto-oncogenes?
They code for proteins associated with cell growth
Which of the following is NOT true about plasmids?
None of the above: these are all true
In eukaryotes, mRNA leaves the nucleus and attaches to a ribosome to initiate
With regards to gene expression, which of the following does not occur in prokaryotes, but does in eukaryotes?
A poly-A tail is added to the 3' end of mRNA and a G-cap is added to the 5' end
Bioinformatics is a field of science that combines biology, technology, and information science, heavily relyingon computers in the process.
Sequences of DNA that often appear in many places in the genome and are able to move location in the genome are called
A multigene family is composed of
genes whose sequences are very similar and that probably arose by duplication
Of the following, which is the most current description of a gene?
A sequence of DNA that codes for a functional product, either RNA or polypeptide
Which of the following disciplines refers specifically to the manipulation of genes for various purposes?
DNA that is methylated will typically exhibit
lower gene expression
The reason fur using Taq polymerase in PCR is that
it is heat stable and can withstand the high temperature necessary to separate the DNA strands
The following things happen to a molecule of tRNA that is involved in translation. Place them in the correct order. 1. The tRNA is bound to its amino acid. 2. The tRNA enters the E site of the ribosome. 3. The tRNA enters the P site of the ribosome. 4. The tRNA has its amino acid joined to the growing polypeptide chain. 5. The tRNA enters the A site of the ribosome. 6. The tRNA molecule is freed of its amino acid.
1, 5, 4, 3, 6, 2
In 1997, Dolly the sheep was cloned. How was it done?
The nucleus of an adult cell was inserted into an enucleated egg, and the egg was then transferred into a surrogate mother
Assuming each of the following mutations occurred at the same spot shortly after the start codon of a gene, which would probably have the biggest impact on the polypeptide that is ultimately produced?
A deletion of two nucleotides
Repressors turn genes on.
of the following tools of genetic engineering is INCORRECTLY paired with its possible application?
DNA ligase--cutting DNA
If a Drosophila female is homozygous for a deleterious mutation of her maternal effect gene, which of the following is true?
All of her offspring will show an abnormal phenotype
RNA polymerase transcribes a gene in a yeast cell, producing a strand of mRNA that is 10,000 nucleotides long. The gene ultimately codes for a polypeptide that is 1,000 amino acids long. Which of the following statements correctly accounts for these observations?
Much of the original mRNA transcript consists of introns.
Suppose that the gene that codes for a certain repressor became mutated, resulting in a repressor protein that is unable to bind its target. What would be the result?
The gene it controls would be overexpressed
What is a ribozyme?
A molecule of RNA that exhibits enzymatic activity
A single eukaryotic allele can code for several different proteins. Which of the following makes this possible?
mRNA may be spliced in alternative ways
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