APPS--Unit 2 Political Behavior

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Terms in this set (...)

Political Spectrum
visual description on how public opinion is measured and organized
Politics
The study of how and why policy decisions are made, and who received the benefits of the policy
Liberal
Government needs to be active in solving problems and providing services to people
Conservative
Government needs to be passive and less active in people's lives, let people and business be free to provide services or solve problems.
Moderate
"Middle of the Road" evened out with liberal and conservative views
Radical
Political views that favor violent and extreme change to bring in something new
Reactionary
Political views that favor violent and extreme change to bring something back from long ago
Political Party
Organization of citizens with similar beliefs who control the government through winning elections and holding on to government office.
Watchdog function
Party out of power criticizing policies and behavior of party in power
Informer function
Parties send out messages about important political topics and their official views on it
Nominating function
Main function of parties, selecting the best candidate to represent the party for an election.
Governmental function
Parties select leadership within government (Congress and Executive Agencies) and allow legislative and executive branches to work with each other
Single Issue Party
3rd party that focuses on one policy issue
Ideological Party
3rd party that is based on a set of radical or reactionary beliefs
Splinter Party
3rd party that breaks away from a major party over an issue and has a candidate with a strong personality
Spoiler Role of 3rd Parties
3rd party takes enough votes away from a major party to cost it an election
Innovator Role of 3rd Parties
3rd party addresses issues neither major party addresses. Major parties adopt it as one of their own.
Self Nomination
Person nominates themselves for a party nomination
Petition
legal document where people sign their names to support a candidacy, law, policy.
Caucus
meeting of party leaders to support a candidate or policy
Direct Primary
Election held by a party to nominate a candidate
Closed Primary
Primary election where only declared party members can participate
Open Primary
Primary election where people do not need to be declared party members, but choose a party's primary in which to participate
General Election
Election open to all registered and eligible voters to make the final decision about public offices and issues.
Initiative
Suggestion for a law put up to an election by the people
Referendum
Suggested law put up to an election by the government
Franchise
right to vote
Suffrage
right to vote
Electorate
total voting population
Sociological Factors in voting
Income, education, race/ethnic background, gender, geography
Psychological Factors in voting
how loyal someone feels to a party
straight ticket voting
only voting for candidates of one party
split ticket voting
voting for candidates of different parties
Independent voters
people who register to vote, but do not officially register as a political party member
15th Amendment
dropped the race requirement to vote, allowed African-American men over 21 to vote
19th Amendment
dropped the gender requirement to vote, allowed women over 21 to vote
poll tax
tax payment collected in order to vote
24th Amendment
declared poll taxes or any kind of payment in order to vote
26th Amendment
lowered the voting age to 18.
Propaganda
technique of persuasion
testimonial
well-known person endorses an idea, product or candidate
bandwagon
Appeals to people's desire to be like everyone else
glittering generality
making a statement that sounds nice, but has little meaning
namecalling
using a label that is unpleasant or feared to harm a person's ideas, product, or organization
Plain-folks
Person who is presenting the information is from common origins and "just like everybody else"
Cardstacking
distortion or juggling of facts
Transfer
use of symbols to accomplish purposes for which they were not intended
Interest Group
formal or informal group of people who bring attention to a public policy issue by influencing the public policy process.
Lobbying
actual pressure put on lawmakers to respond to an interest group's needs