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John Winthrop

Puritan leader who became the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony. "City on a Hill"


group of people who wanted to "purify" the Church of England. They established the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630.

Joint Stock Company

A business in which investors pool their wealth for a common purpose, then share the profits

John Smith

Helped found and govern Jamestown. His leadership and strict discipline helped the Virginia colony get through the difficult first winter

House of Burgesses

the first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619, representative colony set up by England to make laws and levy taxes but England could veto its legislative acts.

William Bradford

Leader of the Mayflower Pilgrims and Governor of the Plymouth colony.


a colonist received 50 acres of land for every person whose passage to america he financed

Indentured Servants

colonists who received free passage to North America in exchange for working without pay for a certain number of years

Lord Baltimore

1694- He was the founder of Maryland, a colony which offered religious freedom, and a refuge for the persecuted Roman Catholics.

Mayflower Compact

1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.

Great Migration

when more than 15,000 Puritans journeyed to Massachusetts to escape religious persecution and economic hard times

Cambridge Agreement

1629-Puritan stockholders of Massachusetts Bay Colony agreed to move to New England in return for control of the colonies government

City on a Hill

what John Winthrop said that their Puritan model societies based on Christian principles should be (better than everyone else's societies.)

Protestant Ethic

belief stressing hard work and self-discipline


system of beliefs and church government of a Protestant denomination in which each member church is self-governing

Town Meeting

meeting in colonial New England where settlers discussed and voted on issues.

Anne Hutchinson

A Puritan woman who disagreed with the Puritan Church in Massachusetts Bay Colony. Was banished from the colony, and later helped form Rhode Island. Questione authority.


An interpretation of Puritan beliefs that stressed God's gift of salvation and minimized what an individual could do to gain salvation; identified with Anne Hutchinson.

Thomas Hooker

Clergyman, one of the founders of Hartford. Called "the father of American democracy" because he said that people have a right to choose their magistrates.

John Davenport

A puritan clergyman and co-founder of the American colony of New Haven.

Northwest Passage


Dutch West India Company

Trading company chartered by the Dutch government to conduct its merchants' trade in the Americas and Africa.


Native American who helped the English colonists in Massachusetts develop agricultural techniques and served as an interpreter between the colonists and the Wampanoag.

Peter Stuyvesant

Cruel governor of the colony of New Netherlands. People would not help him fight the English when they arrived to attack the colony.

New Jersey Colony

colony with a diverse population, including Dutch, Swedes, Finns, and Scots


English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preache a doctrine of pacificism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania

Holy Experiment

William Penn's term for the government of Pennsylvania, which was supposed to serve everyone and provide freedom for all.

James Harrington

An English political philosopher, emphasized the importance of property, wrote Oceana in 1656, introduced the idea of a 3 part government

James Oglethorpe

founder of Georgia in 1733; soldier, statesman , philanthropist. Started Georgia as a haven for people in debt because of his intrest in prison reform. Almost single-handedly kept Georgia afloat.

Half-way covenant

Allowed baptized children of church members to be admitted to a "halfway" membership in the church and secure baptism for their own children in turn, but allowed them neither a vote in the church, nor communion.

Harvard and Yale

were created to educated young men to be puritan ministers

Cotton Mather

Puritan theologian, who urged the inoculation against smallpox, played a role in Salem Witch Trials

Dutch East India and West India Companies

after the Netherlands revoked against Spain and gained their independence the Dutch East India Company was established, with an army of 10,000 men and a fleet of 190 ships, the Dutch West India Company often raided rather than traded, It was the Dutch West India company that that bought Manhattan Island for some worthless trinkets (22,000 acres of the most valuable land in the world today)

New Amsterdam

Dutch colony, present day New York City


the theory that a country should sell more goods to other countries than it buys

Navigation Acts

Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.

Enumerated goods

Certain specified goods from the Colonies, including tobacco, cotton, sugar, and furs, which were to be shipped only to England or other English colonies.

Bacon's rebellion

A rebellion lead by Nathaniel Bacon with backcountry farmers to attack Native Americans in an attemp to gain more land

King Phillip's War

War between the Native American tribes of New England and British colonists that took place from 1675-1676. The war was the result of tension caused by encroaching white settlers. The chief of the Wampanoags, King Philip lead the natives. The war ended Indian resistance in New England and left a hatred of whites.

Salem Witch Trials

Several accusations of witchcraft led to sensational trials in Salem, Massachusetts at which Cotton Mather presided as the chief judge. 18 people were hanged as witches. Afterwards, most of the people involved admitted that the trials and executions had been a terrible mistake.

Benjamin Franklin

Printer, author, inventor, diplomat, statesman, and Founding Father. One of the few Americans who was highly respected in Europe, primarily due to his discoveries in the field of electricity.

Middle Ground


Great Awakening

Religious revival in the American colonies of the eighteenth century during which a number of new Protestant churches were established.


movement during the 1700's that spread the idea that knowledge, reason, and science could improve society

Jonathan Edwards

This theologian was an American revivalist of the Great Awakening. He was both deeply pious and passionately devoted to intellectual pursuits. His most popular sermon titled, "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God," appealed to thousands of re-awakened Christians.

Itinerant preachers

Traveling revivalist ministers of the Great Awakening movement. These charismatic preachers spread revivalism throughout America.

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