35 terms

Ecological Anthropology

STUDY
PLAY
Nature
We see nature as harmonic and sympathetic but also as capricious and chaotic
Associated with monotheism
Authors: Williams and Bateson
Animism
Relationality between human and animal (ex: Cree)
Totemism
Devision of the world between human and non-human
Metaphor of the kaleidoscope
...
Umwelt
Each species contracts its won world from the flux of events constituting its natural environment. A world which varies according to perceptions accessed and reacted to by its sensory equipment. It is biologically constructed but has resemblance to culturally constructed cosmologies of all human groups
Differentiating
Metaphoric in quality because to address yourself to what something is you are contrasting it to something else
Relational
Linking and making connections with things.
Essentialism
An explicit view of a habit of thought holding that for any particular entity they are fixed qualities, characteristics, or properties that any entity of that kind must have. these qualities are fixed
Class, gender, race, ethnicity, the human subject, or cultures and societies are fixed or 'core' traits
Sustainable Development
Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
Common property
Can relate to open and unregulated access to a zone of resources or potential resources. OR can refer to collective property with rules and conditions for access. Governed by some community of users
Common property conflicts between indigenous and new-comers
There is conflict over who benefits
COnflict over who bears the cost that comes with these projects
Tragedy of the commons
Individuals will exploit resources for their own personal benefit without recognition of the consequences on others
Butubutu
Solomon Island kinship owning group of land
Puava
Solomon Island of a marine and terrestrial estate. The territory
Ecologist
Undertand and think of the environment and its interrelating components in systematic ways
Environmentalist
Showing concern for the state of the environment and perhaps acting on that concern
Conservationist
Those who act so as to not waste or exhaust, or extinguish and that they with deliberation leave the environment in a usable state for future generations
Ecological Noble Savage
Nadasdy
Aboriginal people as conservationists
Tradition Ecological Knowledge
Or Indigenous ecological knowledge
External uses of TEK
Co-management
Environmental assessment
External institutions involve TEK in their decision making
The "mythic" community
Small, integrated groups using locally evolved norms to manage resources
Globalization
Homogenizing and erosive of diversity
James Bay Northern Quebec Agreement
1975
Result of the Hydro-Quebec controversy
Great Whale Project
Another faze in the Hydro project. Huge controversy that the Cree stopped
Paix de Braves
New Agreement concerning a new relationship between the Quebec government and Quebec Crees
Contains forest co-management provisions
Captain William Bligh
Had the most impact on the Torres Strait. He surveyed and named many of the Islands
Torres Strait Protected Zone Joint Authority
Most islanders chose to stay with Australia
Mabo Decision
Landmark decision for Islanders and indigenous peoples across Australia
Struck down the doctrine of Terra Nullius
Native title to land is recognized (not to sea)
Regimes of Nature
Escobar
Organic Nature (traditional knowledge)
Capitalist nature (historical materialism)
Techno nature (science and technology studies)
Organic nature
Nature and society not separate ontologically
Non-separation of living, non-living, supernatural domains
Connectedness, interactivity of human and non-human entities in kin and community
Place based specificity
Capitalist nature
Governmentality; commodity basis for economic transactions
Production of nature has driven us to requirement for accumulation of diverse nature
Techno nature
Artificially on the rise
Neither local knowledge nor labor-based production
New faze of capitalism and a new face of our manipulation of nature
Characteristic of indigenous common property
Authority in the community
Networks of mutual aid
production primarily for use rather than exchange
Reciprocity rather than accumulation
Extended families as basis of socialization
Ideology of harmonious relations with nature
Such regimes often find themselves under siege from external development (HQ and Cree)
Gameinschaft
Ferdinand Tonnies
Community integrated by shared norms, beliefs. There is loyalty to family and society; ascribed social status and limited division of labor
Gasellschaft
Civil society - association of self interested individuals; division of labor more elaborate. It is susceptible to conflict along lines of class, ethnicity and race
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...