Psychology 270 Exam 1

Abnormal behavior
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Terms in this set (192)
Psychiatric nurseHave advanced degrees, such as a master's or even a Ph.D., and specialize in the care and treatment of patients with psychological disorders, usually in hospitals as part of a treatment team.Marriage and family therapistTypically spend 1 to 2 years earning a master's degree and are employed to provide clinical services by hospitals or clinics, usually under the supervision of a doctoral-level clinician.Scientist-practitionersMental health professionals who are expected to apply scientific methods to their work. They must keep current in the latest research on diagnosis and treatment, they must evaluate their own methods for effectiveness, and they may generate their own research to discover new knowledge of disorders and their treatment.Clinical descriptionOne of the three major categories that make up the discussion and study of psychological disorders, details of the combination of behaviors, thoughts, and feelings of an individual that make up a particular disorder.EtiologyOne of the three major categories that make up the discussion and study of psychological disorders, cause or source of a disorder.Treatment and outcomeOne of the three major categories that make up the discussion and study of psychological disorders, how a disorder is treated may give us some hints about the nature of the disorder and its causes.PrevalenceNumber of people displaying a disorder in the total population at any given time.IncidenceNumber of new cases of a disorder appearing during a specific period.PrognosisPredicted future development of a disorder over time.CoursePattern of development and change of a disorder over time, can be chronic, episodic, or time-limited.Supernatural modelModel to explain behavior with agents of divine power and the astronomy affecting behavior.ExorcismReligious ritual that attributes disordered behavior to possession by demons and seeks to treat the individual by driving the demons from the body.Biological modelModel that explained behavior on a biological basis, Hippocrates played a big role in establishing the 4 humors of the body.insulin shock therapyOne biological treatment where patients were injected with insulin to induce comas.Psychosocial treatmentTreatment practices that focus on social and cultural factors (such as family experience), as well as psychological influences. These approaches include cognitive, behavioral, and interpersonal methods.Moral therapyPsychosocial approach in the 19th century that involved treating patients as normally as possible in normal environments.Mental Hygiene movementStarted by Dorothy Dix, a mid-19th-century effort to improve care of the mentally disordered by informing the public of their mistreatment.PsychoanalysisPsychoanalytic assessment and therapy, which emphasizes exploration of, and insight into, unconscious processes and conflicts, pioneered by Sigmund Freud.BehaviorismAssociated with pavlov, skinner, and Watson, Explanation of human behavior, including dysfunction, based on principles of learning and adaptation derived from experimental psychology.UnconsciousPart of the psychic makeup that is outside the awareness of the person.CatharsisRapid or sudden release of emotional tension thought to be an important factor in psychoanalytic therapy.IdIn psychoanalysis, the unconscious psychical entity present at birth representing basic sexual and aggressive drives.EgoIn psychoanalysis, the psychical entity responsible for finding realistic and practical ways to satisfy id drives.SuperegoIn psychoanalysis, the psychical entity representing the internalized moral principles of parents and society.Defense mechanismsCommon patterns of behavior, often adaptive coping styles when they occur in moderation, observed in response to particular situations. In psychoanalysis, these are thought to be unconscious processes originating in the ego.castration anxietyIn psychoanalysis, the fear in young boys that they will be mutilated genitally because of their lust for their mothers.NeurosesObsolete psychodynamic term for psychological disorder thought to result from unconscious conflicts and the anxiety they cause. Plural is neuroses.Ego psychologyDerived from psychoanalysis, this theory emphasizes the role of the ego in development and attributes psychological disorders to failure of the ego to manage impulses and internal conflicts. Also known as self-psychology.CollectiveunconsciousAccumulated wisdom of a culture collected and remembered across generations, a psychodynamic concept introduced by Carl Jung.TransferencePsychoanalytic concept suggesting that clients may seek to relate to the therapist as they do to important authority figures, particularly their parents.Self-actualizingProcess emphasized in humanistic psychology in which people strive to achieve their highest potential against difficult life experiences.Person-centered therapyTherapy method in which the client, rather than the counselor, primarily directs the course of discussion, seeking self-discovery and self-responsibility. (Rogers)Behavioral modelExplanation of human behavior, including dysfunction, based on principles of learning and adaptation derived from experimental psychology.Classical conditioningFundamental learning process first described by Ivan Pavlov. An event that automatically elicits a response is paired with another stimulus event that does not (a neutral stimulus). After repeated pairings, the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus that by itself can elicit the desired response.ExtinctionLearning process in which a response maintained by reinforcement in operant conditioning or pairing in classical conditioning decreases when that reinforcement or pairing is removed; also the procedure of removing that reinforcement or pairing.introspectionEarly, nonscientific approach to the study of psychology involving systematic attempts to report thoughts and feelings that specific stimuli evoked.Systematic desensitizationBehavioral therapy technique to diminish excessive fears, involving gradual exposure to the feared stimulus paired with a positive coping experience, usually relaxation.Multidimensional modelApproach to the study of psychopathology that holds psychological disorders as always being the products of multiple interacting causal factors. Interdisciplinary, integrative, and eclectic, draw upon information from several sources.One-dimensional modelModel that explains behavior in terms of a single cause, could mean a paradigm, school, or conceptual approach, tend to ignore information from other areas.GenesLong deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules, the basic physical units of heredity that appear as locations on chromosomes. A single gene is a subunit of DNA that determines inherited traits in living things.Dominant geneOne of a pair of genes that strongly influences a particular trait, and we need only one of them to determine, for example, our eye color or hair color.Recessie geneMust be paired with another recessive gene to determine a trait. Otherwise, it won't have any effect.PolygenicDescribes a characteristic that is influenced by many genesDiathesis-stress modelOne of the models for understanding the interaction of genes and the environment, Hypothesis that both an inherited tendency (a vulnerability) and specific stressful conditions are required to produce a disorder.Gene-environment correlation modelOne of the models for understanding the interaction of genes and the environment, that people with a genetic predisposition for a disorder may also have a genetic tendency to create environmental risk factors that promote the disorder.VulnerabilitySusceptibility or tendency to develop a disorder.EpigeneticsThe study of factors other than inherited DNA sequence, such as new learning or stress, that alter the phenotypic expression of genes.NeuroscienceStudy of the nervous system and its role in behavior, thoughts, and emotions.Action potentialsShort periods of electrical activity at the membrane of a neuron, responsible for the transmission of signals within the neuron.Terminal buttonThe end of an axon (of a neuron) where neurotransmitters are stored before release.NeurotransmittersChemicals that cross the synaptic cleft between nerve cells to transmit impulses from one neuron to the next. Their relative excess or deficiency is involved in several psychological disorders.Limbic systemThis system helps regulate our emotional experiences and expressions and, to some extent, our ability to learn and to control our impulses. It is also involved with the basic drives of sex, aggression, hunger, and thirst.Basal gangliaSmoothens movements and helps maintain postural stabilityCerebral cortexContains more than 80% of all neurons in the central nervous system. This part of the brain provides us with our distinctly human qualities, allowing us to look to the future and plan, to reason, and to create.Prefrontal cortexThis is the area responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking and reasoning, planning for the future, and long-term memory. This area of the brain synthesizes all information received from other parts of the brain and decides how to respond.AgonistsChemical substance that effectively increases the activity of a neurotransmitter by imitating its effects.AntagonistsIn neuroscience, a chemical substance that decreases or blocks the effects of a neurotransmitter.Inverse antagonistsChemical substance that produces effects opposite those of a particular neurotransmitter.GlutamateAmino acid neurotransmitter that excites many different neurons, leading to action.GABANeurotransmitter that reduces activity across the synapse and thus inhibits a range of behaviors and emotions, especially generalized anxiety.SerotoninNeurotransmitter involved in processing of information and coordination of movement, as well as inhibition and restraint. It also assists in the regulation of eating, sexual, and aggressive behaviors, all of which may be involved in different psychological disorders. Its interaction with dopamine is implicated in schizophrenia.NorepinephrineNeurotransmitter active in the central and peripheral nervous systems, controlling heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration, among other functions. Because of its role in the body's alarm reaction, it may also contribute generally and indirectly to panic attacks and other disorders.DopamineNeurotransmitter whose generalized function is to activate other neurotransmitters and to aid in exploratory and pleasure-seeking behaviors (thus balancing serotonin). A relative excess of dopamine is implicated in schizophrenia, and its deficit is involved in Parkinson's disease.Cognitive scienceField of study that examines how humans and other animals acquire, process, store, and retrieve information.Learned helplessnessMartin Seligman's theory that people become anxious and depressed when they make an attribution that they have no control over the stress in their lives (whether or not they do in reality).Learned optimismAnother theory of Seligman, those people who are more positive in negative situations can combat depression more effectively.ModelingLearning through observation and imitation of the behavior of other individuals and consequences of that behavior.Prepared learningAn ability that has been adaptive for evolution, allowing certain associations to be learned more readily than others.Implicit memoryCondition of memory in which a person cannot recall past events despite acting in response to them (contrast with explicit memory).Fight or flight responseBiological reaction to alarming stressors that musters the body's resources (for example, blood flow and respiration) to resist or flee a threat.EmotionPattern of action elicited by an external event and a feeling state, accompanied by a characteristic physiological response.AffectConscious, subjective aspect of an emotion that accompanies an action at a given time.behaviorOne of the three components of emotion, basic pattern of emotional behavior that differ in fundamental ways, a means of communicationPhysiologyOne of the three components of emotion, a brain function involving the more primitive brain areasCognitionOne of the three components of emotion, appraisals, attributions, and other ways of processing the world around you that is fundamental to emotional experience.PanicFear occurring at the wrong timeManiaOverly excited and joyfulDepressionExtreme sadness and distressRisk factorsVariables that precede a negative outcome and increase the chances that the outcome will occur.ResilienceA relatively positive outcome in the face of significant adversity or traumatic experiences.MultifinalityVarious outcomes may result from similar beginnings.EquifinalityDevelopmental psychopathology principle that a behavior or disorder may have several causes.GenderMen and women may differ in emotional experience and expression, leading to different manifestations of psychological problems and different methods for dealing with them. May be related to gender roles and certain ways of coping with emotion.Social supportOne of the factors affecting disorder development, low social support related to mortality, disease and psychopathology. Frequency and quality is important and especially important for the elderly.CultureSome cultural factors may influence the form and expression of the behavior, the proposed causes for psychological problems, and treatment options. Some problems are unique to a specific group or culture. Ex: Susto: Symptoms of anxiety coming from belief of black magic.Clinical assessmentA procedure in which a clinician evaluates a person in terms of the psychological, clinical, and social factors that influence the individuals functioning.Unstructured interviewInterview that involves a series of open-ended questionsStructured interviewInterview that consists of a standardized series of questions with predetermined wording and order.InterviewsAim to discover reasons for seeking treatment, symptoms, health status, family background, and developmental history.Mental status examRelatively brief preliminary test of a client's judgment, orientation to time and place, and emotional and mental state; typically conducted during an initial interview.IQ TestTest that is used to determine learning disabilities, giftedness, and mental retardation. Can predict future academic achievement, and are a large component of diagnosing neurological and psychiatric disorders.DiagnosisProcess of determining whether a presenting problem meets the established criteria for a specific psychological disorder.ReliabilityDegree to which a measurement is consistent, for example, over time or among different raters.ValidityDegree to which a technique measures what it purports to measure.StandardizationProcess of establishing specific norms and requirements for a measurement technique to ensure it is used consistently across measurement occasions. This includes instructions for administering the measure, evaluating its findings, and comparing these to data for large numbers of people.Appearance and behaviorOne of the factors that is assessed during a mental status exam, overt behaviors, posture, attire, expressions, overall appearance.Thought processesOne of the factors that is assessed during a mental status exam, rate/continuity/content of speech.Mood and affectOne of the factors that is assessed during a mental status exam, individuals personal experience of emotion and their outward expression of behavior.Intellectual functioningOne of the factors that is assessed during a mental status exam, general idea about cognitive strengths and deficits, attention, memory, knowledgeSensoriumOne of the factors that is assessed during a mental status exam, a person's awareness of time (day, month, year) place (City, state, country) or identity (self and others), also known as orientation.Behavioral assessmentMeasuring, observing, and systematically evaluating (rather than inferring) the client's thoughts, feelings, and behavior in the actual problem situation or context.AntecedentWhat occurred just before the problem behaviorConsequenceWhat occurred after the problem behaviorSelf-monitoringAction by which clients observe and record their own behaviors as either an assessment of a problem and its change or a treatment procedure that makes them more aware of their responses. Also called self-observation.Projective testsPsychoanalytically based measures that present ambiguous stimuli to clients on the assumption that their responses will reveal their unconscious conflicts. Such tests are inferential and lack high reliability and validity.TATThematic apperception test, clients are presented with a card that has a picture on it and asked to tell a dramatic story involving the card.Personality inventoriesSelf-report questionnaires that assess personal traits by asking respondents to identify descriptions that apply to them.MMPIThe Minnesota multi phasic personality inventory, the most popular personal inventory. Based on an empirical approach where clients are simply asked true or false questions.Intelligence quotientScore on an intelligence test estimating a person's deviation from average test performance.Neuropsychological testAssessment of brain and nervous system functioning by testing an individual's performance on behavioral tasks., this method of testing assesses brain dysfunction by observing the effects of the dysfunction on the person's ability to perform certain tasksFalse positivesAssessment error in which pathology is reported (that is, test results are positive) when none is actually present.False negativesAssessment error in which no pathology is noted (that is, test results are negative) when one is actually present.NeuroimagingSophisticated computer-aided procedures that allow nonintrusive examination of nervous system structure and function.psychophysiological assessmentMeasurement of changes in the nervous system reflecting psychological or emotional events such as anxiety, stress, and sexual arousal.electroencephalogramEEG, Measure of electrical activity patterns in the brain, taken through electrodes placed on the scalp.CAT scanA method of creating static images of the brain through computerized axial tomography, particularly useful in locating brain tumors, injuries, and other structural and anatomical abnormalities, do expose patient to radiation.Magnetic resonance imagingThe patient's head is placed in a high-strength magnetic field through which radio frequency signals are transmitted. These signals "excite" the brain tissue, altering the protons in the hydrogen atoms. The alteration is measured, along with the time it takes the protons to "relax" or return to normal. Where there are lesions or damage, the signal is lighter or darkerPositron emission tomographySubjects undergoing this scan are injected with a tracer substance attached to radioactive isotopes, or groups of atoms that react distinctively. This substance interacts with blood, oxygen, or glucose. When parts of the brain become active, blood, oxygen, or glucose rushes to these areas of the brain, creating "hot spots" picked up by detectors that identify the location of the isotopes. Thus, we can learn what parts of the brain are working and what parts are not.Functional MRIScan that measures the functioning of the brain and has largely replaced PET scans in the leading brain-imaging centers because they allow researchers to see the immediate response of the brain to a brief event, such as seeing a new face.idiographic strategyClose and detailed investigation of an individual emphasizing what makes that person unique (compare with nomothetic strategy).Nomothetic strategyIdentification and examination of large groups of people with the same disorder to note similarities and develop general laws (compare with idiographic strategy).ClassificationAssignment of objects or people to categories on the basis of shared characteristics.taxonomySystem of naming and classification (for example, of specimens) in science.NosologyClassification and naming system for medical and psychological phenomena.NomenclatureIn a naming system or nosology, the actual labels or names that are applied. In psychopathology, these include mood disorders and eating disorders.Classical categorical approachClassification method founded on the assumption of clear-cut differences among disorders, each with a different known cause.Dimensional approachMethod of categorizing characteristics on a continuum rather than on a binary, either-or, or all-or-none basis.Prototypical approachSystem for categorizing disorders using both essential, defining characteristics and a range of variation on other characteristics.Familial aggregationThe extent to which a disorder is found among a patient's relatives.ComorbidityPresence of two or more disorders in an individual at the same time.LabelingApplying a name to a phenomenon or a pattern of behavior. The label may acquire negative connotations or be applied erroneously to the person rather than that person's behaviors.Dependent variableIn an experimental study, the phenomenon that is measured and expected to be influenced (compare with independent variable).Independent variablePhenomenon manipulated by the experimenter in a study and expected to influence the dependent variable.internal validityExtent to which the results of a study can be attributed to the independent variable after confounding alternative explanations have been ruled out.External validityExtent to which research findings generalize, or apply, to people and settings not involved in the study.Confounding variableVariable in a research study that was not part of the intended design and that may contribute to changes in the dependent variable.Control groupGroup of individuals in a study who are similar to the experimental subjects in every way but are not exposed to the treatment received by the experimental group. Their presence allows for a comparison of the differential effects of the treatment.RandomizationMethod for placing individuals into research groups that assures each an equal chance of being assigned to any group, thus eliminating any systematic differences across groups.Analogue modelsApproach to research that employs subjects who are similar to clinical clients, allowing replication of a clinical problem under controlled conditions.Statistical significanceProbability that obtaining the observed research findings merely by chance is small.Clinical significanceDegree to which research findings have useful and meaningful applications to real problems.Effect sizeStatistical measure that shows the amount of difference among the members of a group in a clinical study.Patient uniformity mythTendency to consider all members of a category as more similar than they are, ignoring their individual differences.Case studyResearch procedure in which a single person or small group is studied in detail. The method does not allow conclusions about cause-and-effect relationships, and findings can be generalized only with great caution (contrast with single-case experimental design).CorrelationDegree to which two variables are associated. In a positive correlation, the two variables increase or decrease together. In a negative correlation, one variable decreases as the other increases.Correlation coefficientComputed statistic reflecting the strength and direction of any association between two variables. It can range from 21.00 through 0.00 (indicating no association) to 11.00, with the absolute value indicating the strength and the sign reflecting the direction.DirectionalityPossibility that when two variables, A and B, are correlated variable A causes variable B or variable B causes variable A.EpidemiologyPsychopathology research method examining the prevalence, distribution, and consequences of disorders in populations.ExperimentResearch method that can establish causation by manipulating the variables in question and controlling for alternative explanations of any observed effects.Placebo effectBehavior change resulting from the person's expectation of change rather than from the experimental manipulation itself.Placebo control groupsIn an outcome experiment, a control group that does not receive the experimental manipulation but is given a similar procedure with an identical expectation of change, allowing the researcher to assess any placebo effect.Double-blind controlProcedure in outcome studies that prevents bias by ensuring that neither the subjects nor the providers of the experimental treatment know who is receiving treatment and who is receiving placebo.Comparative treatment researchOutcome research that contrasts two or more treatment methods to determine which is most effective.Single-case experimental designsResearch tactic in which an independent variable is manipulated for a single individual, allowing cause-and-effect conclusions but with limited generalizability (contrast with case study method).TrendDirection of change of a behavior or behaviors (for example, increasing or decreasing).LevelDegree of behavior change with different interventions (for example, high or low).Withdrawal designRemoving a treatment to note whether it has been effective. In single-case experimental designs, a behavior is measured (baseline), an independent variable is introduced (intervention), and then the intervention is withdrawn. Because the behavior continues to be measured throughout (repeated measurement), any effects of the intervention can be noted. Also called reversal design.BaselineMeasured rate of a behavior before introduction of an intervention that allows comparison and assessment of the effects of the intervention.Multiple baselineSingle-case experimental design in which measures are taken on two or more behaviors or on a single behavior in two or more situations. A particular intervention is introduced for each at different times. If behavior change is coincident with each introduction, this is strong evidence the intervention caused the change.PhenotypesObservable characteristics or behaviors of an individual.GenotypesSpecific genetic makeup of an individual.Human genome projectOngoing scientific attempt to develop a comprehensive map of all human genes.EndophenotypesGenetic mechanisms that contribute to the underlying problems causing the symptoms and difficulties experienced by people with psychological disorders.Basic genetic epidemiologyOne approach used to assess gene-environment influences, Statistical analysis of family, twin, and adoption studies, answers the question Is the disorder inherited (heritability), and if so, how much of the disorder is attributable to genetics?Advanced genetic epidemiologyOne approach used to assess gene-environment influences, Statistical analysis of family, twin, and adoption studies, answers the question If the disorder is found to be inherited, what are the factors that influence the disorder (for example, is the change something that occurs early in development, is it different between males and females, and do the genetic influences affect environmental risk factors)?Gene findingOne approach used to assess gene-environment influences, Statistical analysis of specific families or individuals (linkage and/or association studies), answers the question Where is the gene (or genes) that influences the disorder?Molecular geneticsOne approach used to assess gene-environment influences, Biological analysis of individual DNA samples, answers the question What biological processes do the genes affect to produce the symptoms of the disorder?Family studiesGenetic studies that examine patterns of traits and behaviors among relatives.probandIn genetics research, the individual displaying the trait or characteristic being studied.Adoption studiesIn genetics research, the study of first-degree relatives reared in different families and environments. If they share common characteristics, such as a disorder, this finding suggests that those characteristics have a genetic component.Twin studiesIn genetics research, the comparison of twins with unrelated or less closely related individuals. If twins, particularly monozygotic twins who share identical genotypes, share common characteristics such as a disorder, even if they were reared in different environments, this is strong evidence of genetic involvement in those characteristics.Genetic linkage analysisStudy that seeks to match the inheritance pattern of a disorder to that of a genetic marker. This helps researchers establish the location of the gene responsible for the disorder.Genetic markersInherited characteristic for which the chromosomal location of the responsible gene is known.Association studiesResearch strategies for comparing genetic markers in groups of people with and without a particular disorder.Cross-sectional designMethodology to examine a characteristic by comparing individuals of different ages (contrast with longitudinal design).CohortsParticipants in each age group of a study with a cross-sectional design.Cohort effectObservation that people of different age groups differ in their values and experiences.Retrospective informationLiterally "the view back"; data collected by examining records or recollections of the past. It is limited by the accuracy, validity, and thoroughness of the sources.Longitudinal designSystematic study of changes in the same individual or group examined over time (contrast with cross-sectional design).Cross-generational effectLimit on the generalizability of longitudinal research because the group under study may differ from others in culture and experience.Sequential designCombination of the cross-sectional and longitudinal designs involving repeated study of different cohorts over time.Informed consentEthical requirement whereby research subjects agree to participate in a study only after they receive full disclosure about the nature of the study and their own role in it.