191 terms

Professional Education

lesson plan
a teacher's detailed description of the course of instruction for an individual lesson
6 e learning cycle model
to further engage students and build on students' prior knowledge while encouraging the development of student learning
object, event, or question used to engage students and activate prior knowledge. teachers strive to make connections between what students know and can do
objects, events, or questions are explored. teachers support student learning with hands-on activities
students explain their understanding(s) of skills, concepts, and processes
learning activities are expanded to apply concepts in varying contexts and build or extend earlier understanding and skill
students assess their knowledge, skills, and abilities. provide student growth and instructional effectiveness
students utilize electronic media. essential for 21-century learners
6+1 model
provides the teacher with the foundational pieces that can be applied to any process of lesson planning that he or she employs
activity or event to get the students engaged and interested; this should clearly relate to prior knowledge or learning
statements of what the students should know or be able to do by the end of the lesson; must be clearly defined and measurable
direct instruction
students progress from what they know to what the teacher needs them to know or be able to do
guided practice
students practice and apply what they have learned through designated learning activities, and teachers monitor continuously and give immediate feedback while re-teaching when needed
independent practice & assessment
homework or other independent assignments given to students while teacher assesses student mastery as it relates to the objective for the lesson
restate the objective, review the main idea, remind of the importance of the lesson, and relate it to future learning
required equipment & materials
supplies that are necessary for student success within the stated, specific objective
individualized education program (IEP)
must be designed for a single student and individualized to meet the needs of that student.
opportunity for teachers, parents, school admins, related services personnel, and students to work together to improve educational quality for children with disabilities
general set of procedures for the implementation of an IEP
child is identified as possibly needing special education and/or related services
child is evaluated
eligibility is decided
child is found eligible for services
IEP meeting is scheduled
IEP meeting is held and the IEP is written
services are provided
progress is measured and reported to parents
IEP is reviewed
child is re-evaluated
the state-mandated guidelines for learning, which are detailed by providing grade-level expectations and benchmarks for student learning
grade-level expectations
the core content to be taught
focus attention on specific content, knowledge, and skills that students are expected to learn while in school
instructional objective
a statement that details what a student should know and be able to do as a result of a specific learning experience
short-term objectives
achievable, developed with student input, and measurable
long-term objectives
help set a direction and visualize the level of expected performance as the learning process unfolds
three domains for classifying educational objectives
cognitive, affective, psychomotor
cognitive domain
includes objectives that focus on thinking capabilities
ex. students will read a passage of literature and answer 10 comprehension questions with 80% accuracy
affective domain
includes objectives that focus on feelings, values, and dispositions
ex. while working in a cooperative learning group, a student will show kindness to others in the group with the words and actions chosen
psychomotor domain
includes objectives that focus on manual, athletic, and other physical skills
ex. students will run a mile in 12 minutes or less
cooperative learning
engages students in the process of learning and provides interactive support for all involved.
three keys are team recognition, individual accountability, and equal opportunities for success.
primary goal of cooperative learning
students aid each other in the process of learning
think, pair, and share
initially, students work on a specific, individual task. then, each student pairs up with a partner to discuss the result and revise the solution. finally, the pair of students shares the result with the rest of the class.
a group becomes an expert on a given topic. then, each group is reorganized to share with other students in the classroom until everyone in the learning environment has a better understanding of the specific topics chosen by the teacher.
a different group of students work in different corners of the classroom to discuss a specific topic. then, the students teach the topic to the rest of the class.
direct instruction (aka systematic teaching)
a teacher-centered instructional approach. typically delivered in lecture style. approach which focuses on skills. teachers utilize small-group and whole-group instruction.
key of direct instruction
the lessons are strategically broken down in smaller units, sequenced intentionally, and taught explicitly
problem-based learning (PBL)
student-centered pedagogy in which students learn paralellism about a subject through the experience of problem-solving. a style of active learning.
goals of PBL
to aid students in developing flexible knowledge, to increase effective problem solving skills, to motivate self-directed learning, and to encourage effective collaboration skills and intrinsic motivation
group work in PBL
identify what they already know, determine what they need to know, and discern how and where to access new information that may lead to resolution of the problem.
role of teacher in PBL
known as the tutor, is a facilitator. role includes support, guidance, and monitoring throughout the learning process.
venn diagram
graphic organizer which is a tool to show all possible logical relations between a finite collection of sets
5 W's
graphic organizer which examines who, what, when, where, and why
fishbone diagram
graphic organizer which is a visualization tool in order to categorize causes and effects of a problem
concept map
graphic organizer which is a tool to show how different concepts are or could be related
tool which focuses on creating a word formed from the initial letters of a name
mnemonic device
tool which focuses on students' memory and aids their ability to recall information
choral reading
literacy tool which focuses on students repeating phrases that the teacher has just said
modeled reading
literacy tool which focuses on a teacher reading and modeling fluency including tone, rate, and prosody
paired reading
literacy tool which focuses on students working in pairs. the higher-level reader gains fluency from teaching, and the lower-level student improves through the help of the higher-level reader. another name for buddy reading.
tool which focuses on imitating an operation of a real-world process or system
three primary aspects of a culturally responsive classroom
recognition and belief by the teacher that these students want to learn; specific instructional strategies and teaching behaviors that will encourage all students to engage in learning activities leading to improved academic achievement; and instructional programs that prevent failure and increase opportunity, which should be the primary objective for all teachers
interdisciplinary units
connecting content area learning with language arts and culturally diverse literature
learning styles (7 types)
Howard Gardner created. the way in which a student recognizes and processes information in the context of an educational setting
visual (spatial)
students prefer to use pictures, images, and spatial relationships to engage in learning process
arural (auditory-musical)
students prefer to use sound and music to engage in the learning process
verbal (linguistic)
students prefer to use words, both in speech and writing, to engage in the learning process
physical (kinesthetic)
students prefer to use their bodies, hands, and sense of touch to engage in the learning process
logical (mathematical)
students prefer to use logic, reasoning, and systems to engage in the learning process
social (interpersonal)
students prefer to learn in groups or with other people to engage in the learning process
solitary (intrapersonal)
students prefer to work alone and use self-study to engage in the learning process
thinks in terms of physical space. aware of their environments, like to draw, do jigsaw puzzles, read maps, and daydream.
taught through drawings, and verbal and physical imagery. tools: models, graphics, charts, photographs, drawings, 3-D modeling, video, tv, multimedia, etc.
uses the body effectively. keen sense of body awareness. like movement, making things, and touching. taught through physical activity, hands-on learning, acting, and role playing. tools: equipment and real objects.
sensitivity to rhythm and sound. sensitive to sounds in their environments. may study better with music. taught by turning lessons into lyrics, speaking rhythmically, and tapping out time. tools: musical instruments, music, radio, CD, and multimedia
relates through understanding and interacting with others. many friends, empathy for others, and street smarts. taught through group activities, seminars, and conversations. tools: phone, audio-conferencing, time and attention from instructor, writing, email, etc.
understands by identifying one's own interests and goals. shy away from others. in tune with their feelings; have wisdom, intuition, and motivation, strong will and confidence. taught through independent study and introspection. tools: books, tape recorders, and lectures.
explores through the art of reasoning and calculating. conceive knowledge conceptually and abstractly and are able to see and explore patterns and relationships. like to experiment, solve puzzles, and ask cosmic questions. tools: logic games, investigations, and mysteries.
using words effectively. highly developed auditory skills and often think in words. like reading, playing word games, and making up stories or poetry. taught by encouraging them to say and see words and read books together. tools: computers, games, multimedia, books, tape recorders, and lectures
visual media help students acquire concrete concepts, such as object identification, spatial relationship, or motor skills where words alone are inefficient
distinction between verbal sound and non-verbal sound such as music.
sound media are necessary to present a stimulus for recall or sound recognition. audio narration is recommended for struggling readers.
used to depict human performance so that learners can copy the movement
decisions on color display are required if an object's color is relevant to what is being learned
left hemisphere
controls the right side of the body and functions primarily as the more academic and logical side of the brain. functions in the areas of analytic thought, logic, language, reasoning, science, math, written number skills, and right-hand control
right hemisphere
controls the left side of the body. primarily as the artistic and creative side of the brain. art awareness, creativity, imagination, intuition, insight, holistic thought, music awareness, 3-D forms, and left-hand control.
cultural differences should be respected or even encouraged. multicultural education focuses on five key areas: content integration, knowledge construction, equity pedagogy, prejudice reduction, and empowerment of school culture.
Bloom's taxonomy
created by educational psychologist Dr. Benjamin Bloom in order to promote higher forms of thinking in education. the goals of the learning process.
3 domains of educational activities or learning
cognitive, affective, psychomotor
mental skills (knowledge). recall or recognition of specific facts, procedural patterns, and concepts that serve in the development of intellectual abilities and skills.
growth in feelings or emotional areas (attitude of self)
manual or physical skills (skills)
new taxonomy domains
Piaget's intellectual development
some children may pass through the stages at different ages than the averages, but cognitive development always follows this sequence
sensorimotor stage
birth through ages 18-24 months
early on, infants are only aware of what is immediately in front of them. focus on what they see, what they are doing, and physical interactions with their immediate environment. later stages include goal-oriented behavior which brings about a desired result.
7-9 months, object permanence- sign that memory is developing. increased physical mobility (crawling, standing, walking) leads to increased cognitive development.
early language development - developing some symbolic abilities
preoperational stage
toddlerhood (18-24) through early childhood (age 7)
able to think about things symbolically. language use more mature. develop memory and imagination; allows them to understand past vs. future and engage in make-believe.
thinking based on intuition and is not relying on logical skills.
cannot yet grasp more complex concepts such as cause and effect, time, and comparison
concrete operational stage
ages 7-12
demonstrate logical, concrete reasoning. less egocentric and more aware of the world around them. realize that one's own thoughts and feelings are unique. operational thinking- ability to perform reversible mental actions such as logical thinking within the context of an evaluation. still can't solve a problem with many components in a logical way.
formal operational stage
adolescence through adulthood
logically use symbols related to abstract concepts such as algebra and science. systematic ways, formulate hypotheses, and consider possibilities. continued intellectual development in adults depends on their accumulation of knowledge.
depth of knowledge (DOK)
curricular elements are categorized based upon the cognitive demands required to produce an acceptable response and evidence of mastery.
DOK level 1
recall and reproduction
facts, terms, and/or properties of objects. ex. list, identify, explain. either knows the answer or doesn't. no need to be figured out or solved.
DOK level 2
skills and concepts
comparing and contrasting people, places, events, and concepts; convert info from one form to another. describe or explain. summarize, estimate, organize, classify, infer.
DOK level 3
strategic thinking
short-term use of higher-order thinking such as analysis and evaluation to solve real world problems with predictable outcomes
analyze, explain and support with evidence, generalize, and create
DOK level 4
extended thinking
synthesis, reflection, assessment, and adjustment of plans over time
solve real world problems with unpredictable outcomes
synthesize, reflect, conduct, and manage
Jerome Bruner
known as the father of cognitive psychology. the mind is guided by experience and with experience comes a coding within the brain which leads a learner to make predictions about the future.
deductive thinking
requires students to take one or more general statements, and then work their way down to a more specific conclusion
inductive thinking
take specific facts and use them to develop general conclusion
creative thinking
produce original, creative material, for example, to write a short story
cognitive thinking
academic skills such as remembering, visually processing material, and reasoning
parallel thinking
work together to address a subject rather than to argue against each other. can be inductive or deductive as long as students work toward same goal.
convergent questioning
student to "converge" on one answer, for example, answering what is 4+2? generally, this type of questioning requires lower-level thinking skills
divergent questioning
requires critical thinking, since it allows for students to generate multiple answers, "what is freedom?" requires higher-order thinking skills
response to intervention model
commonly used model of tracking and intervention
focuses on multi-tier prevention system to identify students with academic skill weakness and learning disabilities
three levels of response to intervention model
primary prevention level (tier 1)
secondary prevention level (tier 2)
tertiary prevention level (tier 3)
homework - designed to help students practice skills that have already been taught in class
consistent, specific feedback about student performance - connect with students and provide direction in relation to continued academic growth and development.
evaluate skill development - assess foundational skills relating to the concept, and extra practice
if student does not show progress, teacher should explore outside sources to assist the struggling students
reading intervention
more effective at younger age.
direct instruction of comprehension strategies, word analysis activities, and vocabulary building practice
reading comprehension affects comprehension in all subject areas
first step- reteach the concept, focusing attention on clarifying any misconceptions
periods of time when teachers focus a student's attention on completing one task and finishing another
benefits: helps teachers to minimize disruptions and behavior problems, increases instructional time, maintains optimal learning conditions, helps promote student independence
primary way to implement successful transitions
focusing on a variety of structured mechanisms
indicators of successful transition
clear starting point and clear ending point;
a founded routine for everyday tasks such as coming into the classroom, handing in homework, taking attendance, and focusing on class work;
series of expectations followed up with consequences;
students know and utilize resources and learning supplies within a convenient and uniform way
create a structured environment
an organized environment can replace their feelings of insecurity, mistrust, and discomfort with predictability and stability. A predictable environment is based on set rules and routines and well-established schedules and arrangements
monitor student behavior
process of continually checking children's progress over time; allows teachers to use this info to adjust their interventions and improve their effectiveness
document progress
create individual behavior plans for those students who show more serious problems within the classroom. must document progress and share this progress with appropriate stakeholders.
develop social skills
identify the social skills needed to replace problematic behavior, model how to perform the skill, practice using the skill, and reinforce acceptable evidence of progress
provide training for anger management
need coping skills for resolving conflicts without coercion, physical force, and aggression. need to recognize the triggers that ignite their anger and aggression, develop strategies for managing their anger, and avoid unnecessary conflict with others. strategies include self-talk, relaxation skills, and social problem-solving
ivan pavlov
theory focuses on classical conditioning, and concepts focus on pairing of neutral stimuli with unconditioned stimuli, resulting in learning a conditioned response to a stimuli that was neutral in the past
e.l. thorndike
theory focuses on the law of effect, and concepts focus on the idea that behaviors resulting in favorable consequences are likely to be repeated and that behaviors resulting in unfavorable consequences are not likely to be repeated
b.f. skinner
theory focuses on operant conditioning, and concepts focus on the idea that behavior which is reinforced is more likely to be repeated and that behavior which is not rewarded or is punished is less likely to be repeated
praise or removal of an undesirable stimulus- increases the likelihood a behavior will be repeated, whether the behavior is positive (e.g. sharing) or negative (e.g. disrupting class)
premack principle
pairs undesirable behaviors with desirable acts, is employed frequently to induce students to engage in the latter. ex. telling students they can go outside to play kickball (a desired outcome) after cleaning the art station (an undesirable task)
punishment decreases the likelihood a behavior is repeated, provided it is not reinforcing in some way, such as giving a violator status with peers (Johnny the Rebel). if punishment is fair (fits the transgression) and is justified by explanation, ti can eliminate many undesirable behaviors (skipping class)
employed to teach target behaviors by reinforcing successive approximations of the behavior in question. reinforce students responses that approximate a desirable outcome, like creative writing, by reinforcing selectively those attempts at self-expression that emerge during writing assignments
occurs when a learned behavior no longer elicits an expected reinforcement or is no longer paired with an unconditioned stimulus (classical conditioning). particularly useful in defeating undesirable classroom conduct or social relationships if the reinforcement for learned behaviors is removed
schedule of reinforcement
in the initial stages of learning, desired behaviors are reinforced on a continuous schedule of reinforcement. later, to maintain learned behaviors, reinforcement is best provided on a partial schedule. ex. pop quiz, which occurs on a variable interval schedule and maintains student preparation better than scheduled quizzes (fixed interval schedule)
occurs when behaviors are reinforced on a partial schedule of reinforcement. failure to reinforce desired behaviors leads to extinction. partial reinforcement of undesirable behavior is counterproductive, resulting in their maintenance.
occurs when students learned that only specific behaviors lead to reinforcing or punishing consequences, not similar behaviors. ex. speaking out in class is desirable only when called upon.
occurs when students generalize behaviors beyond that which is reinforced or punished.
believed that learning occurs without direct consequences to one's actions. learners observe modeled behavior and the consequences of the behavior, and then project the consequences onto themselves.
established the model of self-regulated learning. theory focuses on importance of practicing modeled behavior by forecasting the rewarding consequences of positive behaviors and the negative consequences of undesirable behaviors.
used to help increase the probability that a specific behavior will occur in the future by delivering a stimulus immediately after a response/behavior is exhibited.
positive reinforcement
presenting a motivating/reinforcing stimulus to the person after the desired behavior is exhibited, making the behavior more likely to happen in the future. examples:
teacher gives student praise (positive stimulus) for doing homework (behavior)
negative reinforcement
occurs when a certain stimulus (usually an aversive stimulus) is removed after a particular behavior is exhibited. the likelihood of the particular behavior occurring again in the future is increased because of removing/avoiding the negative consequence. teacher increases a behavior, whereas with punishment, a teacher decreases behavior.
example: John turns in his homework (behavior) in order to avoid a consequence at home (negative stimulus)
repeated aggressive behaviors of an individual with the intent to hurt or destroy another individual. discrepancy in authority, often occurring in situations of physical or cognitive dispartiy
enjoy hostility and the rewards acquired from aggression
lack guilt from their actions
void of empathy or compassion for victims
have aggressively driven role models
process unrealistically how the world should meet their needs
passive victim
does not defend himself and can be described as isolated, physically weak, crying or yielding, and/or suffering from past trauma
proactive victim
generally teases or iritates the bully, but does not have the social and emotional skills to defend herself
are instructional or test adaptations. allow the student to demonstrate what he or she knows without fundamentally changing the target skill that's being taught in the classroom or measured in testing situations. do not reduce learning or performance expectations that we might hold for students. they change the manner or setting in which info is presented or the manner in which students respond. but they do not change the target skill or testing construct
timing (accommodations)
time is flexible in order to provide time for completion of learning assignments
presentation of material (accommodations)
content is presented to the student in a fashion that's different from a more traditional fashion
setting (accommodations)
completing the task or test in a quiet room or in a small group with other students
response (accommodations)
multiple formats for students to show mastery of skills and concepts
changing the target skill or the construct of the learning occurring. these generally will lower the performance expectations. may do that by reducing the amount of content to be learned or the complexity of the assessment components.
assistive technology (AT)
any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities. three types: low, medium, and high. overarching goal is to give learners with disabilities access to literacy and communication in every context of learning.
blindness or low vision
talking word processor, Braille output, large-print materials, qualified reader, Brailler, computer with voice output, electronic note-taker, screen magnification product, optical magnifier, and large-print label
hearing loss or deafness
certified sign language interpreter, telephones with amplification devices and visual and auditory alerting systems, fire alarms with visual and auditory alerting systems, assistive listening device (closed-captioned, FM), captioned video training materials
cognitive and developmental disabilities
telephone auto-dialer, larger buttons on equipment, memory aids (electronic notebook, pop-up timer on computer), communication device, voice output with optical character recognition to read documents, or reading pen
learning disabilities or attention deficit disorders
reading template, automatic line guide, video recorder, computer with voice output, floor fan or nature tape played on a stereo for white noise, colored labeling
psychiatric disabilities
room partitions or enclosed office space to reduce noise and distractions, video or audio conferencing meetings
child protective software
any type of software that blocks a student from accessing inappropriate content through the Internet
computer-aided instruction
assignments or tasks completed by a student on a computer. ex: simulation, tutorial, and computer games
destructive or threatening comments made to a student through an e-mail, a blog, or a post on the Internet
software program that facilitates the organization of information such as a letter or mailing address
intellectual property
copyright material
a software program which organizes information into rows and columns
a software program designed to destroy data on the computer
virus protection software
a software application that protects the data on a computer
promoting learning
students are motivated
extrinsic motivation
students are motivated to perform a behavior in order to earn a reward or avoid a punishment
intrinsic motivation
engaging in a behavior because it is personally rewarding
compilations of all e-mail addresses grouped under one address. when a message is sent to that one address, it goes to all participants within the group.
you want the group to be able to interact with one another as a group outside or your classroom
you need to remind of upcoming deadlines, changes in class activities, or any other special requests you have of them
you can pose the frequently asked questions and provide proactive communication to those inquiries
electronic bulletin boards and discussion groups
able to follow discussions on various topics more easily because the conversations are organized by theme.
students may be more engaged due to the fact that online discussions allow a student to choose where and what to post in response to the group.
challenge and high expectations
are more motivating than low expectations
provide choice
if a test normally has 25 items, create a test with 30 and allow students to ignore 5. give choice out of three for a homework assignment to demonstrate mastery.
give students an opportunity for significance
power of purpose and meaning for their lives
provide feedback that is accurate, specific, and designed to improve performance
provide feedback that is clear, relevant, immediate, and constructive
help students feel competent
more engaged and learn better when they are challenged, exercise choice, feel significant, receive accurate and timely feedback, and know that they are competent
feedback: educative in nature
providing feedback means giving students an explanation of that they are doing correctly and incorrectly. focus should be on what the students are doing right. provide them with an explanation and example as to what is accurate and inaccurate about their work. compliment, correct, compliment.
feedback: given in a timely manner
when feedback is given immediately after showing proof of learning, the student responds positively and remembers the experience about what is being learned in confident manner.
feedback: be sensitive to the individual needs of the student
some students need to be nudged to achieve at a higher level and others need to be handled very gently so as not to discourage learning and damage self-esteem. a balance between not wanting to hurt a student's feelings and providing proper encouragement is essential
feedback: asking four questions
what can the student do? what can't the student do? how does the student's work compare with that of others? how can the student do better?
feedback: referencing skill or specific knowledge
rubric- instrument to communicate expectations for an assignment. effective rubrics provide students with very specific information about their performance, compared to an established range of standards.
feedback: giving feedback to keep students "on topic" for achievement
regular "check ins" with students lets them know where they stand
feedback: hosting a one-on-one conferencing
most effective. student looks forward to having the attention, allows the opportunity to ask necessary questions. generally be optimistic. requires good time management, no longer than 10 mins.
feedback: giving verbal, non-verbal, or written communication
imperative that we examine our non-verbal cues. facial expressions and gestures are also means of delivering feedback.
feedback: concentrating on one student skill
critique one thing not the whole paper
feedback: alternating due dates for your students/classes
utilize this strategy when grading papers or tests. allows you necessary time to provide quality, written feedback. using a rotation chart for students to conference with at a deeper more meaningful level. students will also know when it is their turn to meet with you and are more likely to bring questions of their own to the conference.
feedback: educating students on how to give feedback to each other
model for students what appropriate feedback looks and sounds like. train students to give constructive feedback in a way that is positive and helpful.
feedback: asking another professional to give feedback
get other administrators of teachers to critique work
feedback: having the students take notes
jot down notes as you provide verbal feedback
feedback: tracking student progress
keep a section of a notebook for each student. write daily or weekly dated comments about each student as necessary. keep track of good questions the student asks, behavior issues, areas for improvement, test scores, etc. requires essential time management, but you are ready with you have a conference with student or teacher
feedback: returning tests, papers or comment cards at the beginning of class
allows students to ask necessary questions and to hold a relevant discussion
feedback: using post-it notes
use notes to point out when on task or not instead of calling out student
feedback: giving general praise
most important aspect of genuine praise is specificity
feedback: "I am noticing"
make an effort to notice a student's behavior or effort at a task.
feedback: providing a model or example
communicate with your students the purpose for an assessment and/or feedback. give example of an A and C paper to see differences.
feedback: inviting students to give you feedback
feedback goes both ways, and it is wise to never stop improving and honor our skills as teachers
critical thinking
the process students use to reflect on, assess, and judge the assumptions underlying their own and others' ideas and efforts
creative thinking
the process students use to develop ideas that are unique, useful, and worthy of further elaboration
active learners are always questioning. more productive and engaged. meta-cognition- thinking about thinking, involves questioning our individual learning processes.
fluency, originality, flexibility, and elaboration
when students are able to come up with ideas (fluency), combine ideas in new ways or come up with unusual ideas (originality), then categorize and develop their ideas (flexibility and elaboration), they are more able to make inventive or creative connections between ideas.
opens up student thinking by using sensory information to stimulate imagination with both spoken and written words. can help students plan out an experience before execution. helps with planning, goal-setting, and organization
mind mapping
method of visual note-taking that helps students organize information in unique and personal ways. helps them retain, remember, and recall info. helps students see the whole picture at once and make connections among related ideas without interruption.
point of view
allows students to explore an idea from multiple perspectives
broaden students' thinking that an idea should be examined from many points of view before an opinion is formed
helps students relate material to previously learned concepts as well as generate new comparisons. stimulate the imagination and lead students to deeper understandings by connecting things that do not always appear connected
process of stating ideas in a concise, precise form. it is not a summary and does not involve simply stating the main idea or restating info or opinion.s this requires students to synthesize info and nuances in order to capture the essence of an idea, object, or activity, and then communicate their thoughts clearly
decisions and outcomes
students can assess and evaluate a variety of decisions and possible outcomes. understanding cause-and-effect relationships helps students recognize the importance of examining the outcomes of multiple decision options before embarking on a course of action