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Robert Kennedy

Became attorney general, wanted to refocus the attention of the FBI on organized crime and civil rights.

John F. Kennedy's strategy of "flexible response"

called for a variety of military options that could be matched to the scope and importance of a crisis.

The Alliance for Progress

was intended to improve the level of economic well being in Latin America.

Soviet Union

attempted to install nuclear weapons in Cuba, President Kennedy ordered a naval quarantine of that island.

President Kennedy

ordered hundreds of federal marshals and thousands of federal troops to force the racial integration of the University of Mississippi.

Earl Warren

led the official government investigation of John F. Kennedy's assassination.

Lee Harvey Oswald

President Kennedy's alleged assassin

President Johnson

called his package of domestic reform proposals the Great Society.

Lyndon Johnson's Great Society programs

won some noteworthy battles in education and health care.

Civil Rights Act of 1964

accomplished the creation of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, prohibited discrimination based on gender, banned sexual as well as racial discrimination, and banned racial discrimination in most private facilities open to the public.

Operation Rolling Thunder

the code name for American bombing raids on North Vietnam.

Tet offensive of 1968

The most serious blow to Lyndon Johnson's Vietnam policy

American culture

The skepticism about authority that emerged in the United States during the 1960s had deep historical roots.

President Johnson's legislative program after his election in 1964 included:

Medicare health insurance for the elderly, massive federal aid for education, and a voting-rights act to re-enfranchise black voters.

The 1968 Tet offensive resulted in a tactical defeat for:

the Viet Cong and a political defeat for the United States.

One reason for the decline of American workers' productivity during the 1970s was:

the general shift in the economy from manufacturing to services.

Richard Nixon's most valuable asset as he began his presidency in 1969

expertise in foreign affairs

American armed forces in Vietnam

composed largely of the least privileged young Americans.

Twenty-sixth Amendment

lowered the voting age to eighteen

President Nixon's chief foreign policy adviser

Henry Kissinger

legacies of Richard Nixon's presidency

The Environmental Protection Agency, Supplemental Security Income for the blind, disabled, and indigent aged, the Endangered Species Act, and the Occupational Health and Safety Administration

Watergate scandals

caused by the actions of Richard Nixon's staff in the 1972 presidential campaign involved obstruction of justice, use of the Internal Revenue Service to harass political opponents, illegal use of the FBI and CIA, and burglarizing enemies' psychiatry offices.

cease-fire agreement in Vietnam in 1973

the United States was to withdraw all its troops from Vietnam.

The 1973 War Powers Act

required the president to report to Congress any commitment of American troops.

The most controversial action of Gerald Ford's presidency:

pardoning Nixon for any known or unknown crimes he had committed while serving as president.

Signed by Gerald Ford and leaders of thirty-four other nations:

The Helsinki accords, pledged signatories to guarantee certain basic human rights

The feminist movement

major social movement born in the 1960s that retained and gathered momentum in the 1970s and after

The guiding principle of President Carter's foreign policy:

Human rights.

Camp David agreement between Israel and Egypt:

President Jimmy Carter's most spectacular foreign policy achievement

U.S. dependence on foreign oil

President Carter believed that the fundamental problem of the American economy in the late 1970s.

Boycotting the 1980 Olympic Games:

one measure taken by President Carter in response to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.

The "new right" movement

helped to elect Ronald Reagan was spearheaded by evangelical Christians.

richest and the poorest Americans

In the 1980s, for the first time in the twentieth century, income gaps widened between

To President Reagan, "the focus of evil in the modern world" was:

The Soviet Union

Sandra Day O'Conner

The first woman appointed to the United States Supreme Court

Foreign Policy

The issue that dominated Ronald Reagan's second term as president.

Bush's management of a seriously slumping economy:

The primary issue that enabled Bill Clinton to defeat President Bush and Ross Perot in the 1992 election.

The razor-thin election of 2000 between George W. Bush and Al Gore:

resolved when the U.S. Supreme Court ended further vote recounts in Florida, giving Bush the electoral vote victory.


The group most profoundly affected by the great economic changes of the late twentieth century.

The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986

Attempted to penalize employers for hiring illegal immigrants.

Illegal immigrants

Pay more dollars in taxes than they claim in welfare payments.

By the 1990s, Approximately one-quarter (25%):

The percentage of college graduates in the 25 to 34 age group.

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