Sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted by burning fossil fuels, enter the atmosphere-- where they mix with oxygen and water to form sulfuric acid and nitric acid-- and return to Earth's surface.
Conversion of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides to acids that return to Earth as rain snow or fog
Acitve Solar Energy Systems
Solar energy system that collects energy through the use of of mechanical devices like photovoltaic cells or flat-plate collectors
Commercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food-proccessing industry, usually through the ownership by large corporations.
The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering.
The deliberate effort to modify a portion of the Earth's surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenence or economic gain.
Concentration of trace substances such as carbon monoxide, sulfur oxide, hydrocarbons, and solid particulates, at a greater level than occurs in average air.
Belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, such as thunderstorms and earthquakes, have discrete spirit and concious life.
Laws (no longer in effect) in South Africa that physicall separated different races into different geographic areas.
A religion that does not have a central authority but shares ideas and cooperates informally.
Balance of Power
Condition of roughly equal strength between opposing countries or alliances of countries.
A small geographic area that could not be successfully organized into one or more stable states because it was inhabited by many ethnicities with complex, long-standing antagonisms toward each other.
An east-west line designated under the Land Ordinance of 1785 to facilitate the surveying and numbering of townships in the United States.
Industries that sell their products or services primarily to consumers outside the settlement
Biochemical Oxygen Demand
Amount of oxygen required by aquatic bacteria to decompose given load of organic waste; a measure of water pollution.
A process by which real estate agents convinced white property owners to sell their houses at low prices because of fear that black families would soon be moving into the neighborhood.
A location where transfer is possible from one mode of transportation to another.
British Received Pronunciation
The dialect of English associated with upper-class Britons living in the London area and now considered standard in the United Kingdom.
An industry in which the final product weighs more or comprises a greater volume than the inputs.
An industry in which the final product weighs less or comprises a lower volume than the inputs.
The class or distinct hereditary order into which a hindu is assigned according to religious law.
An area delineated by the U.S, Bureau of the Census for which statistics are published; in urbanized ares, they correspond roughly to neighborhoods.
Central Place Theory
A theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel further.\
A market center for the exchange of services by people attracted from the surrounding area.
Migration of paople to a specific location because of relatives or people of the same nationality previously migrated there.
A gas used as a solvent, a propelant in aerosols, a refrigerant, and in plastics foams and fire extinguishers.
Clustered Rural Settlement
A rural settlement in which the houses and farm buildings of each family are situated close to each other and fields surround the settlements.
Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory.
A state in which the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly.
Concentric Zone Model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.
The sustainable use and management of a natural resource, through consuming at a less rapid rate than it can be replaced.
Businesses that provide services primarily to individual consumers, including retail services and personal services.
Manufacturing based in homes rather than in a factory, commonly found before the Industrial Revolution.
Council of Government
A cooperative agency consisting of representatives of local governments in a metropolitan area in the United States.
A language that results from the mixing of a colonizer's language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
Crude Birth Rate
The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
The body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute a group of people's distinct tradition.
The frequent repetition of an act, to the extent that it becomes characteristic of the group of people performing the act.
The process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population.
The number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64, compares to the number of people active in the labor force.
Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting.
A division of a branch that unites a number of local congregations in a single legal and administrative body.
A process of improvement in the material conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology.
Dispersed Rural Settlement
A rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages.
The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.
The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.
The process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century.
A nineteenth- and early twentieth-century approach to the study of geography that argued that the general laws sought by human geographers could be found in the physical sciences. Geography was therefore the study of how the physical environment caused human activities.
Branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect large numbers of people.
Process in which more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region.
A religion with a relatively concentrated spatial distribution whose principles are likely to be based on the physical characteristics of the particular location in which its adherents are concentrated.
Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions.
The spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process.
An internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government.
a process of change in the use of a house, from single-family owner occupancy to abandonment
The area subject to flooding during a given number of years according to historical trends.
Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups.
Form of mass production in which each worker is assigned one specific task to perform repeatedly.
An area within which everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristics.
Energy source formed from the residue of plants and animals buried millions of years ago.
A term used by the French for English words that have entered the French language, a combination of franfais and anglai." the French words for "French" and "English," respectively.
Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion (or a religious branch, denomination, or sect).
Gender Empowerment Measure
Compares the ability of women and men to participate in economic and political decision making.
a process of converting an urban neighborhood from a predominantly low-income renter-occupied area to a predominantly middle-class owner-occupied area
Process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power.
During the Middle Aes, a neighborhood in a city set up by law to be inhabited only by Jews; now used to denote a section of a city in which members of any minority group live because of social, legal, or economic pressure.
Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope.
Global Positioning System
A system that determines the precise position of something on Earth through a series of satellites, tracking stations, and receivers.
A model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service.
Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers.
A ring of land maintained as parks, agricultural, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area.
Anticipated increase in Earth's temperature, caused by carbon dioxide (emitted by burning fossil fuels) trapping some of the radiation emitted by the surface.
Gross Domestic Product
The value of the total output of goods and services produced in a country in a given time period (normally one year).
Workers who migrate to the more developed countries of Northern and Western Europe, usually from Southern of Eastern Europe or from North Africa, in search of higher-paying jobs.
The spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authority or power to other persons or places
Human Development Index
Indicator of level of development for each country, constructed by United Nations, combining income, literacy, education, and life expectancy
The system of writing used in China and other East Asian countries in which each symbol represents an idea or concept rather than a specific sound, as is the case with letters in English.
A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.
Infant Mortality Rate
The total number of deaths in a year among infants under one year old for every 1,000 live births in a society.
Intensive Subsistence Agriculture
A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land.
International Date Line
An arc that for the most part follows 180° longitude, although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing land areas. When you cross the International Date Line heading east (toward America), the clock moves back 24 hours, or one entire day. When you go west (toward Asia), the calendar moves ahead one day.
A language that is unrelated to any other languages and therefore not attached to any language family.
An industry for which labor costs comprises a high percentage of total expenses
Land ordinance of 1785
A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers.
A system of communication through the use of speech, a collection of sounds understood by a group of people to have the same meaning.
A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago. Differences are not as extensive or old as with language families, and archaeological evidence can confirm that these derived from the same family.
A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history.
A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary.
The numbering system used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on a globe and measuring distance north and south of the equator.
Less Developed Country
Also known as a developing country, a country that is at a relatively early stage in the process of economic developement.
The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live.
A language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages.
The numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distance east and west of the prime meridian (0°).
Factories built by U.S. companies in Mexico near the U.S. border, to take advantage of much cheaper labor costs in Mexico.
The area surrounding a central place, from which people are attracted to use the place's goods and services.
Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives.
An internal representation of a portion of Earth's surface based on what an individual knows about a place, containing personal impressions of what is in a place and where places are located.
Metropolitan Statisical Area
In the United States, a central city of at least 50,000 population, the county within which the city is located, and adjacent counties meeting one of several tests indicating a functional connection to the central city.
Micropolitan Statistical Area
An urbanized area of between 10,000 and 50,000 inhabitants, the county in which it is found, and adjacent counties tied to the city.
Change in the migration pattern in a society that results from industrialization, population growth, and other social and economic changes that also produce the demographic transition.
More Developed Country
Also known as a relatively developed county or a developed country, a country that has progressed in relativety far along a continuum of development.
State that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities.
Identity with a group of people that share legal attachment and personal allegiance to a particular place as a result of being born there.
A state who's territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality.
Natural Increase Rate
The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.
New International Division of Labor
Transfer of some types of jobs, especially those requiring low-paid less skilled workers, from more developed to less developed countries.
The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents.
The number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living.
gas that absorbs ultraviolet solar radiation, found in the stratosphere, a zone between 15 and 50 kilometers (9 to 30 miles) above Earth's surface.
Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population.
A circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians.
Passive Solar Energy Systems
Solar energy that collects energy without the use of mechanical devices.
A model of North American urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road.
Services that provide for the well-being and personal improvement of individual consumers.
An atmospheric condition formed through a combination of weather conditions and pollution, especially from motor vehicle emissions.
Solar energy cells, usually made from silicon, that collect solar rays to generate electricity.
The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.
A form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca, used for communications among speakers of two different languages.
A large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country.
Culture found in a large, heterogeneous society that shares certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics.
The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives.
Adoption by companies of flexible work rules, such as the allocation of workers to teams that perform a variety of tasks.
Maintenance of a resource in its present condition, with as little human impact as possible.
The portion of the economy concerned with the direct extraction of materials from Earth's surface, generally through agriculture, although sometimes by mining, fishing, and forestry.
The largest settlement in a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement.
Primate City Rule
A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the largest settlement has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement.
The meridian, designated at 0° longitude, which passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England.
A north-south line designated in the Land Ordinance of 1785 to facilitate the surveying and numbering of townships in the United States.
Housing owned by the government; in the United States, it is rented to low-income residents, and the rents are set at 30 percent of the families' incomes.
Services offered by the government to provide security and protection for citizens and businesses.
In reference to migration, a law that places maximum limits on the number of people who can immigrate to a country each year.
Belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race.
Particles from a nuclear reaction that emit radiation; contact with such particles may be harmful or lethat to people and must therefore be safely stored for thousonds of years.
A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement.
A process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to purchase or improve property within the boundaries.
People who are forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion.
An approach to geography that emphasizes the relationships among social and physical phemona in a particular area study.
The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another.
The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long-distance methods.
A resource that has a theoretically unlimited supply and is not depleted when used by humans.
A substance in the environment that is useful to people, is economically and technologically feasible to access, and is socially acceptable to use.
System of planting crops on ridge tops, in order to reduce farm production costs and promote greater soil conservation.
A U.S. state that has passed a law preventing union and company from negotiating a contract that requires workers to join a union as a condition of e3mployment.
four consecutive 15 minute periods in the morning and evening with the heaviest volumes of traffic.
A place to deposit solid waste, where a layer of earth is bulldozed over garbage each day to reduce emissions of gases and odors from the decaying trash, to minimize fires, and to discourage vermin.
Generally, the relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole, specifically the relationship between the size of an object on a map and the size of the actual feature on Earth's surface.
The portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing useful products through processing, transforming, and assembling raw materials.
A square normally 1 mile on a side. The Land Ordinance of 1785 divided townships in the United States into 36 sections.
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district (CBD).
Reproduction of plants through annual introduction of seeds, which result from sexual fertilization.
A person who works fields rented from a landowner and pays the rent and repays loans by turning over to the landowner a share of the crops.
A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period.
Location factors related to the costs of factors of production inside the plant, such as land, labor, and capital.
Location factors related to the transportation of materials into and from a factory.
Another name for shifting cultivation, so named because feilds are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris.
Ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states.
The reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distinct place, as a result of improved communications and transportation systems.
Development of new housing sites at relatively low density and at locations that are not contiguous to the existing built-up area.
An area within a city in a less developed country in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures.
The form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications.
An area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs.
The spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected.
Structural Adjustment Program
Economic policies imposed on less developed countries by international agencies to create conditions encouraging international trade, such as raising taxes, reducing government spending, controlling inflation, selling publicly owned utilities to private corporations, and charging citizens more for services.
Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family
Farming methods that preserve long-term productivity of land and minimize pollution, typically by rotating soil- restoring crops with cash crops and reducing in-puts of fertilizer and pesticides.
The level of development that can be maintained in a country without depleting resources to the extent that future generations will be unable to achieve a comparable level of development.
The portion of the economy concerned with transportation, communications, and utilities, sometimes extended to the provision of all goods and services to people in exchange for payment.
A square normally 6 miles on a side. The Land Ordinance of 1785 divided much of the United States into a series of townships.
A group of neighboring countries that promote trade with each other and erect barriers to limit trade with other blocs
A company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located
Triangular Slave Trade
A practice, primarily during the eighteenth century, in which European ships transported slaves from Africa to Caribbean islands, molasses from the Caribbean to Europe, and trade goods from Europe to Africa.
Commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because truck was a Middle English word meaning batering or the exchange of commodities.
A group in society prevented from participating in the material benefits of a more developed society because of a variety of social and economic characteristics.
The increasing gap in economic conditions between core and peripheral regions as a result of the globalization of the economy.
An internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials
A religion that attempts to appeal to all people, not just those living in a particular location.
Program in which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private members, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the site, build new roads and utilities, and turn the land over to private developers.
A form of Latin used in daily conversation by ancient Romans, as opposed to the standard dialect, which was used for official documents.
Rice planted on dryland in a nursery, then moved to a deliberately flooded field to promote growth.
Zero Population Growth
A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero.