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Criminal Profiling Chapters 1-3
Terms in this set (60)
the term sometimes used to describe how conclusions were formed about crime and criminals.
also known as The Hammer of Witches, represents the first systematic approach for profiling individuals who were supposedly guilty of horrific crimes.
the ability to put one's self into the mind of a criminal through rational thought and vivid imagination.
George Baxter Phillips
was the Chief Forensic Pathologist on the Jack the Ripper case which is the first case to use profiling in 1888. Phillips contributed to the world of criminal profiling by helping police by inferring personality characteristics based on the nature of the wounds inflicted. He also reconstructed crime scenes and described the wounds of victims to gain a greater insight into the offender's psychological makeup
is the psychiatrist who offered clues to the possible identity of the bomber.
the tendency to change a previous judgment in the direction of newly provided information. It is one of the pervasive errors in everyday human judgment and prediction.
are very general terms or comments that could apply to many different people. An example is, 'you have a need for other people to like and admire you.'
when a child feels antagonism toward the parent of the same sex and sexual attraction toward the parent of the opposite sex.
5 Areas of Criminal Profiling
1. Crime Scene Profiling
b. Risk Assessment
4. Suspect-based Appearance
a. General Appearance
5. Equivocal Death Analysis/reconstructive Psychological Evaluation
a. Psychological Autopsy
Crime Scene Profiling
the process of identifying cognitive tendencies, behavioral patterns, motivation, emotional dispositions, and demographic variables of an unknown offender, based on characteristics and evidence gathered at the scene of the crime.
a method of identifying the area of probable residence or the probable area of the next crime of an unknown offender, based on the location of and the spatial relationships among various crime sites.
is most often used to identify and predict dangerous individuals in society. It may also be used to identify positive traits.
a process used to determine the credibility and seriousness of a threat being carried out.
often used to evaluate "individuals who have violated social norms or displayed bizarre behavior, particularly when they appear menacing or unpredictable."
also known as prospective profiling refers to identifying the psychological or behavioral features of persons who may commit a particular crime, such as drug trafficking, school shooting, or stalking.
may refer to suspicious behavior, age, gender. or manner of dress, but it also has referred to race, religion, or ethnicity.
Equivocal Death Analysis
also called reconstructive psychological evaluation, is the reconstruction of the emotional life, behavioral patterns, and cognitive features of a deceased person.
is done to determine whether the death was a suicide, and if it was a suicide, the reasons why the person did it.
Behavioral Analysis Unit
was established in 1972.
mission was to bring behavioral science into the training curriculum for federal law enforcement officers.
National Center for Analysis of Violent Crime (NCAVC)
was established in 1984. The mission was to provide behavioral-based operational support to federal, state, local, and international law enforcement agencies involved in the investigation of unusual or repetitive.
Behavioral Analysis Unit 1-counterterrorism threat assessment
Behavioral Analysis Unit 2-Crimes against adults
Behavrioal Analysis Unit 3-Crimes against children
Violent Criminal Apprehension Program ( ViCAP)
attempts to infer characteristics of an offender from an analysis of the evidence gathered from a particular crime or series of crimes. This involves drawing a conclusion from what we already know.
concentrated on statistical averages of the characteristics of the typical offender. This involves making an inference from what we already know.
Crime Classification Manuel
a compilation of offender profiling applications and crime scene characteristics
3 Stages of Crime Scene Profiling
Modus Operandi (MO)
refers to the actions and procedures and offender uses to commit a crime successfully. It is a behavioral pattern that the offender learns as he or she gains experience in committing the offense. The MO is subject to change.
a type of personation. The signature may involve certain items that are left behind or removed from the scene, or other symbolic patterns such as writings or drawing on the wall.
the intentional alteration of the scene prior to to the arrival of the police.
2 Reasons for Staging
1. To redirect the investigation away from the most logical suspect.
2. To protect the victim or the victim's family from public embarrassment.
An item taken from the scene or from the victim that symbolize the offender's triumph over the victim, and it typically represents the force used against the victim or the victim's subjugation.
A meaningful item taken by the offender to remember the incident, reminding the offender of the pleasure gained from the crime such as jewelry taken from the victim.
a behavioral pattern evident at the crime scene profiling or analysis is psychologically "undo" the crime.
Case Linkage/Linkage Analysis
A method of identifying crimes that are likely to have been committed by the same offender because of behavioral similarity across the crimes.
Refers to a system for classifying personality or other behavioral patterns.
Based on experience, expert knowledge, and training often interspersed with intuition and subjectivity. Preferred strategy for most profilers.
Based on how groups of individuals with similar characteristics have acted in the past. Uses data about prior instances in order to estimate the probability of a particular outcome.
Fundamental statistic employed in acturial prediction. Defined as the statistical prevalence of a particular behavior in a given group over a set period of time, usually one year.
Disadvantages of Profiling
• Bounded/Limited Rationality
1. Bounded/Limited Rationality
2. Belief Persistence/Perseverance
2. Confirmation Bias
3. Self-Serving Bias
4. Fundamental Attribution Error/Bias
humans have a limited mental capacity to make sense of the enourmous complexity of the world.
Profilers are convinced the information embedded in their memory from years of experience allows them to perceive patterns in crimes and make inferences that are beyond the reach of other individuals and investigators.
When investigators select those aspects of the report that that htye see as fitting their own cognitive sketch of the suspect while ignoring the conclusions and predictions in the report that do not fit.
the strong tendency to interpret events in a way that assigns credit to oneself for any succes but denies any responsibility fo any failure.
a common and powerful tendency to explain another persons behavior in terms of dispositional or personality (internal) factors rather than situational or environmental (external) factors.
Once a profiler forms a prediction and description of the offender, they hold onto their formulation regardless of contradictory information or evidence.
Method of Tenacity
where people hold firmly to their beliefs about human behavior simply because they have always believed and known them to be true and correct.
we say our knowledge and beliefs are correct because "it stands to reason and logical deduction." Based on mathematical formulation.
Method of Authority
something is true because individuals and institutions of authority proclaim it be so.
Method of Science
which is the testing of a statement or set of statements through systematic investigation and study. Based on empirical research and systematic investigation.
a homespun awareness resulting from everyday experience as opposed to knowledge gained from formal training.
Violent Crime Linkage Analysis
an automated case linkage system designed to capture collage and compare crimes of violence through the analysis of forensic.
Psychological Signature/Crime Scene Signature
offender's script or mark left at the crime scene.
unique "calling card" intentionally left by the offender.
distinctive "signatures" in our cognitive, emotional and behavioral patterns that occur naturally and often beyond our awareness.
based on how groups of individuals with similar characteristics will act. largely made with knowledge of base rates, which are frequency that certain phenomena occur in specific population.
based on how a particular person will act in certain situations
Clinical/ Experimental Prediction
relies heavily on the knowledge obtained by the clinician in his or her practice.
Life-Course Persistent vs. Adolescent Limited Offenders
exhibit changing manifestations of antisocial behavior, biting and hitting at 4, shoplifiting and truancy and 10, selling drugs and stealing cars at 16, robbery and rape at 22.
offenders begin offending during adolescent years and generally reduce/terminate at 18-26
risk taking, impulsive behaviors: likelihood of young offender
cannot assume that MO will be consistent over years
early onset of antisocial behavior ; persistent offending; signs of early cruelty, callousness
Deficient Interpersonal Skills/peer Rejection
Evidence of bullying, either as victim or aggressor; evidence of peer rejection. behavioral, social, cognitive deficits.
Theory of Psychopathy
excessive brutality, sadism
charming, smooth-talking individual
May not conceal crimes