Schizophrenia is a disorder that is MOST likely to be treated with
biomedical therapies.
Psychological disorders that researchers believe are learned, such as phobias, are most likely to be treated with
A therapist who takes an eclectic approach is one who
uses a variety of psychological theories and therapeutic approaches.
Freud's techniques and assumptions are most evident in today's
psychodynamic therapies.
Which of the following therapists introduced the use of free association?
Sigmund Freud
A central therapeutic technique of psychoanalysis is
free association.
According to Freud, a patient's hesitation to free associate is most likely a sign of
Psychoanalysts would suggest that resistance during therapy supports and maintains the process of
The expression toward a therapist of feelings linked with earlier relationships is known as
Psychodynamic therapy is ________ than traditional psychoanalysis
Which form of therapy would most likely help depressed patients by teaching them how to resolve disagreements with their friends?
interpersonal psychotherapy
Helping patients gain awareness of their unconscious conflicts and defensive behaviors is a major goal of both psychoanalysis and
psychodynamic therapy.
Freud is to ________ as Rogers is to ________.
free association; active listening
Carl Rogers is known for the development of
client-centered therapy
Instead of focusing on the cure of psychological disorders, ________ therapies seek to promote personal growth and self-fulfillment.
An important feature of client-centered therapy is
active listening.
The healing power of insight and self-awareness is LEAST likely to be emphasized by ________ therapists.
Psychological research on the principles of learning has most directly influenced the development of
behavior therapy.
In classical conditioning therapies, maladaptive symptoms are usually considered to be
conditioned responses.
In one treatment for bed-wetting, the child sleeps on a liquid-sensitive pad that when wet, triggers an alarm and awakens the child. This treatment is a form of
behavior therapy.
Benny's mother tries to reduce his fear of sailing by giving the 3-year-old his favorite candy as soon as they board the boat. The mother's strategy best illustrates
Counterconditioning techniques were derived from principles first developed by
cognitive therapy
Which of the following techniques is derived from classical conditioning principles?
systematic desensitization
In 1924, Mary Cover Jones reported that 3-year-old Peter lost his fear of rabbits when a rabbit was repeatedly presented while Peter was eating a tasty snack. This episode best illustrated the potential usefulness of
exposure therapies.
A token economy is to operant conditioning as ________ is to classical conditioning.
systematic desensitization
Relaxing one muscle group after another until one achieves a completely relaxed state of comfort is called ________ relaxation.
Virtual reality exposure therapy is most likely to prove effective in the treatment of
Systematic desensitization is based on the idea that ________ facilitates the elimination of fear.
Replacing a negative response with a positive response is to systematic desensitization as replacing a positive response with a negative response is to
aversive conditioning.
In treating alcohol dependency, therapists have clients consume alcohol that contains a nausea-producing drug. This technique is known as
aversive conditioning.
The practice of ________ is based on the application of operant conditioning principles.
behavior modification
Reinforcing desired behaviors and withholding reinforcement for undesired behaviors is most central to the process of
behavior modification.
In which operant conditioning procedure are positive reinforcers given for desired behaviors?
a token economy
Proponents of behavior modification have suggested that institutionalized patients can be weaned from ________ by shifting them to other rewards common to life outside an institution.
a token economy
Which therapeutic approach emphasizes that people are often disturbed because of their negative interpretations of events?
cognitive therapy
Cognitive therapists are most likely to emphasize that emotional disturbances result from
self-blaming and overgeneralized explanations of bad events.
Although originally trained in Freudian techniques, Aaron Beck developed a ________ therapy for depression.
Which of the following is a form of cognitive therapy?
stress inoculation
Stress inoculation training focuses on helping people to
replace negative self-talk with more positive comments.
Melanie's therapist suggests that when she feels anxious, Melanie should attribute her arousal to her highly reactive nervous system and shift her attention to playing a game with her preschool child. This suggestion best illustrates
cognitive-behavioral therapy.
Which form of therapy is most likely to emphasize the importance of examining a person's role within a social system?
family therapy
Group therapy is typically more effective than individual therapy for
enabling people to discover that others have problems similar to their own.
Most self-help and support groups focus on ______ illnesses.
A famous 12-step program is associated with
By overestimating the actual benefits of their psychotherapeutic treatment, clients are most likely attempting to satisfy their motivation for
Clients often stay in touch with their psychotherapists only if satisfied with the treatment they received. This helps us understand why therapists
tend to overestimate the effectiveness of psychotherapy.
The placebo effect refers to
the beneficial consequences of merely expecting that a treatment will be effective.
Colette received a surprisingly high grade on her first biology test. She failed to perform as well on the second test, however, even though she studied equally for both tests. Which of the following best explains Colette's deteriorating pattern of performance?
regression toward the mean
Which phenomenon refers to the tendency for extraordinary or unusual events to be followed by more ordinary events?
regression toward the mean
The best outcome studies for evaluating the effectiveness of psychotherapy typically use
Meta-analysis refers to
a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different studies.
Klaus is a psychology graduate student who wants to determine whether electroconvulsive therapy is an effective treatment for schizophrenia. To combine the results of numerous published studies on this issue, Klaus should use a technique called
Ron is a 22-year-old mechanic who suffers from claustrophobia. The most effective way to treat Ron's problem would involve
Which form of psychotherapy is especially effective in coping with depression and reducing suicide risk?
cognitive therapy
Cognitive therapies have achieved especially favorable results in the treatment of
Which of the following scientifically unsupported treatment approaches should be avoided?
Which of the following treatment approaches has received little or no scientific support?
energy therapies
Increasingly, insurer and government support for mental health services requires
evidence-based practice.
Rapidly moving one's eyes while recalling traumatic experiences is most descriptive of
Light exposure therapy was developed to relieve symptoms of
Light exposure therapy sparks activity in a brain region that influences
the body's arousal.
Three benefits attributed to all psychotherapies are
hope, a new perspective, and a caring relationship.
By earning a client's trust, empathic and caring therapists promote
a therapeutic alliance.
Immigrants from Asia would most likely experience difficulty as clients of American psychotherapists who emphasize the value of
In one experiment, Asian-American clients were more likely to perceive counselor empathy if their counselor
shared the clients' cultural values.
Psychologists with expertise in research, the assessment of psychological disorders, and the practice of psychotherapy are typically
clinical psychologists.
Which therapeutic specialists are most likely to have received a Ph.D. degree in psychology?
clinical psychologists
Dr. Miller prescribes drugs for the treatment of chronic depression, and she encourages rest and relaxation training for clients suffering from excessive anxiety. It is most likely that Dr. Miller is a
A physician who specializes in the treatment of psychological disorders is called a
The biomedical treatment most widely used today is
drug therapy.
Psychopharmacology involves the study of how:
drugs affect mind and behavior.
The study of the effect of drugs on mind and behavior is called:
The double-blind procedure involves
a procedure in which neither patients nor health care staff know whether a given patient is receiving a drug or a placebo.
Which drug has provided the most help to schizophrenia patients experiencing auditory hallucinations and paranoia?
Antipsychotic drugs have proved helpful in the treatment of
Which drug dampens responsiveness to irrelevant stimuli in schizophrenia patients with positive symptoms?
Melissa suffers from auditory hallucinations and falsely believes that her former high school teachers are trying to kill her. Melissa's symptoms are most likely to be relieved by ________ drugs.
Which drugs appear to produce therapeutic effects by blocking receptor sites for dopamine?
antipsychotic drugs
Tardive dyskinesia is often associated with long-term use of drugs that occupy certain ________ receptor sites.
Which drug sometimes helps patients exhibiting negative symptoms of schizophrenia such as apathy and withdrawal?
Long-term use of certain antipsychotic drugs can produce involuntary movements of the facial muscles, tongue, and limbs. This menacing condition is known as
tardive dyskinesia.
Which drugs are designed to depress central nervous system activity?
tardive dyskinesia.
Xanax and Ativan are ________ drugs.
Xanax would most likely be prescribed in order to help
Jerome overcome feelings of nervous apprehension and an inability to relax.
D-cycloserine helps relieve the symptoms of
obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Which drug enhances the benefits of exposure therapy and helps relieve the symptoms of PTSD and OCD?
Unpleasant withdrawal symptoms following the discontinued use of an antianxiety drug are indicative of
physiological dependence
SSRIs are prescribed to
elevate arousal and mood.
Prozac, Zoloft, and Paxil are called SSRIs because they
slow the normal reabsorption of excess serotonin from synapses.
Dual-action antidepressant drugs work by increasing the availability of
norepinephrine and serotonin.
Cognitive therapy works, top-down, by changing thought processes.
limbic system
Lithium has been found to be especially effective in the treatment of
bipolar disorder.
Edith, a 45-year-old journalist, alternates between extreme sadness and lethargy and extreme euphoria and overactivity. The drug most likely to prove beneficial to her is
Depakote, a drug originally used to treat epilepsy, more recently has been found to be effective in the control of
manic episodes.
Which of the following treatments is most likely to be used only with severely depressed patients?
electroconvulsive therapy
Electroconvulsive therapy has proven to be effective in the treatment of
Which of the following procedures is most likely to result in a loss of memory?
electroconvulsive therapy
A chest implant that intermittently stimulates the vagus nerve has been used to treat some patients with
chronic depression.
Which of the following biomedical treatments provides some of the benefits of ECT without triggering seizures or memory loss?
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation
A possible explanation for the effectiveness of ________ is that it may reduce depression by triggering the long-term potentiation of frontal lobe nerve cells
Deep-brain stimulation involves the implantation of ________ into the cortex.
The least used biomedical intervention for changing behavior is
Which of the following procedures has typically resulted in patients becoming permanently lethargic?
a lobotomy
Inserting a medical instrument through each eye socket was part of a treatment known as
a lobotomy.
Though not performed today, lobotomies provide a historical example of
MRI-guided precision surgery is occasionally done to cut the brain circuits involved in severe cases of
obsessive-compulsive disorder.
What do psychologists call personal strengths that help people cope with stress?
Which approach would attempt to minimize psychological disorders by working to reduce the incidence of child abuse and illiteracy in society?
preventive mental health