Francis Drake

knighted sea pirate for England

Virginia Co. of London

joint stock company that received a letter from James I to settle in New World

John Smith

"He who shall not work, shall not eat" rule

starving winter

1609-1610 desperate times of no food

Powhatan Confederacy

chief Powhatan's tribes in the James River area


chief who allied with the Jamestown settlers at first

Lord de la Warr

declared war against Indians in Jamestown

1st Anglo Powhatan War

war declared by Lord de la Warr against Indians

John Rolfe

his marriage to Pocahontas sealed the peace of the 1st Anglo-Powhatan war

2nd Anglo Powhatan War

English defeated Indians and drove them out of Jamestown entirely

John Rolfe

"Father of Tobacco" industry in VA

House of Burgesses

London Company told settlers to summon this assembly

House of Burgesses

1st parliament in America

James I

hated tobacco & House of Burgesses; made VA royal colony under his control


poor man's crop

sugar cane

rich man's crop


founded by Lord Baltimore for Catholics

Toleration Act

created in Maryland to protect Catholics; granted Christian toleration

Barbados slave code

denied rights to slaves & gave masters control over them


main crop of the Carolinas


named after Charles II; prospered from sugar islands of West Indies

North Carolina

created from angry Virginians who resisted authority & weren't religious


last of the 13 colonies; acted as buffer between Carolinas and Spaniards

John Wesley

founder of Methodist Church (Georgia)

Rhode Island

"sewer where Lord's debris collected & rotted"

Roger WIlliams

founded Rhode Island after being exiled; built 1st Baptist Church which granted religious freedom to all


Roger Williams sheltered the _____ but disagreed with them


"predestination" (good works couldn't save), God was all-knowing, humans were weak & wicked


believed in visible saints that could be admitted to church


extreme puritans who broke away from Church of England

James I

king who banned all Separatists


year Separatists arrived in Plymouth Rock aboard the Mayflower

Miles Standish

fighter and negotiator aboard the Mayflower

Mayflower Compact

agreement to form govt. ; 1st attempt at govt. in America

William Bradford

pilgrim leader & governor

Massachusetts Bay Co.

non-separatist Puritans who wanted to separate from England's impurities not church

John Winthrop

Massachusetts Bay Co. governor


males who belonged to Puritan & could vote to become governor; only like Puritans

John Cotton

very religious Puritan who escaped England Church

Anne Hutchinson

declared heretic because she didn't believe in laws (antinomianism=against laws)

Roger Williams

extreme Separatist who wanted to break off from church of England


founded by Reverend Thomas Hooker who led the Puritans to Hartford & drafted the Fundamental Orders

New Haven

crown granted this settlement a charter

New Hampshire

_____ was taken by greedy Massachusetts Bay; king took it back and made it a royal colony


Indians who befriended the English


leanred English from his captors & helped the English


chief who signed treaty with the Plymouth Pilgrims & helped celebrate 1st thanksgiving

Pequot War

war that started when the English set fire to the Indian villages

Metacom (King Philip's War)

son of Massasoit who assaulted English villages as revenge for the Pequot War but was beheaded

King Philip's War

last threat from Indians to English

New England Confederation

created to fight off Indians, French, & Dutch


the king granted ____ a charter as a slap to the face for Massachusetts

English Navigation Laws

Resented laws which meant to bring colonies and the motherland closer together by restricting trade with outside influences

Sir Edmond Andros

corrupt leader who was hated because of his ties to the Church of England

Glorious Revolution

people of England dethroned Catholic King James II & replaced him with William & Mary

Glorious Revolution

news of this caused the collapse of the Dominion of New England; encouraged challenge to Royal Authority; Navigation Laws weakened "SPARK"


commercial & naval power in 17th century & won independence from Catholic Spain; as a "thanks" they waged wars against the English

Dutch East India Co.

Netherland's Co. that showed their leading colonial power in East Indies

New Netherland

aka New York; not religiously tolerant

Henry Hudson

founded the Hudson River in New Amsterdam/New York

Gustavus Adolphus

king who had favored Protestantism & led the Swedes into colonizing America -> angry Dutch dispatched small army

Peter Stuyvesant

"Father Wooden Leg" who fought the Swedes but surrendered to the English


used to be called Religious Society of Friends; opposed Church of England, had simple meetinghouses, NO OATHS, refused military service

William Penn

famous Quaker who wanted to establish asylum for quakers in America

William Penn

granted land in return for debt owed by king; died of sorrow


attracted people with advertisement & liberal land policy


colony that was extremely nice to Indians & against black slavery

blue laws

laws in Pennsylvania that prohibited cards, dice, games, etc.

New Jersey

created when 2 nobles received land from Duke of York

Middle Colonies

NJ, NY, PA, & DE


MD, VA, MA (short life spans, diseases, tabacco)

headright system

The Virginia Company's system in which settlers and the family members who came with them each received 50 acres of land

Nathaniel Bacon

led revolt of rebels forced into bad land; resented gov.'s friendliness towards Indians

Bacon's Rebellion

murdered indians, chased Berkeley (gov.) from Jamestown, torch to capital "SPARK" for landless servants & slaves

Middle Passage

transatlantic sea voyage that carried slaves

African slaves

brought to America culture, speech, religion, folkways, & labor


black language


contribution was jazz

small farmers

largest social group in the South that owned little land & few slaves

landless whites

social class made up of servants


main source of transportation for the south


wretched & led to family burial plots for the south

New England

healthy, clean water, long life span, lots of pregnant women, very religious


created in New England & showed that they were more educated and advanced

half way covenant

established in response to the decline in Puritans; offered non-Puritans membership

Salem, Massachusetts

place where girls accused old women of being witches


these immigrants went to PA & didn't like the English crown


these immigrants hated the English crown because they restricted wool & went to PA


new type of sermon for the Puritans

William & Mary

Chesapeake college that was established way after Harvard

Paxton Boys

revolt on Quaker's kindness to Indians in PA


in this society, you were free to climb the social ladder, merchants paid for military supplies, wide gap between rich & poor, and king sent prisoners to America

clergy physicians

in colonial society, the ___ had little influence, the _____ were poorly trained


most common disease in colonial america for which they used toads as a remedy


were disliked but later proved useful

Patrick Henry

____ and James Otis were well known lawyers


the #1 industry in America


the #1 crop in VA & MD


#1 product in Middle Colonies


#2 industry


#1 manufacturing

Molasses Act

since English rarely wanted American products, the Americans traded elsewhere; this angered Parliament so they passed the ____ _____ which meant no trade with French


the Molasses Act caused the colonies to turn to ____


aka rest stops where an exchange of gossip, politics, & ideas would eventually lead to a REVOLT!

Samuel Adams

revolutionary leader who hung out at the taverns


religion of the Church of England & controlled by the royal crown; less strict in America


Puritan denomination; let to revolutionism


since _____ were ordained in England, many were angry that England denied them -> REVOLUTION

Jacob Arminius

during time of the Great Awakening, he believed individual free will determined fate (big leap away from Calvinism)

Great Awakening

time from 1730's-1740's where emotional antics were used

Johnathon Edwards

who started the Great Awakening?

George Whitefield

great public speaker that converted many with his new style of preaching

old lights

skeptical to theatrical preaching of the men during the Great Awakening


what was the center of England's Puritanism learning


was not looked up on in America

Charles Wilson Peale

known for protraits of George washington

Benjamin West

_____ & John Copley were painters

Philis Wheatley

slave girl brough to Boston at age 8 & became a poet

Poor Richard's Almanack

was written by Ben Franklin & helped shaped American character


Ben Franklin established first _____ in America


what help spread grievances & opposition of British control

John Peter Zenger

Journalist who questioned the policies of the governor of New York in the 1700's. He was jailed; he sued, and this court case was the basis for our freedom of speech and press. He was found not guilty.

Upper House

legislative body appointed by crown/proprietor & chosen by voters

lower house

legislative body elected by the people

Lord Cornbury

cousin of Queen Anne & worst governor of NY & NJ


because of the bad gov. Lord Cornbury, people began to withhold the gov,'s _____


eventually, democracy (freedom of speech, press, etc.) let to _________


were looked down upon by Quakers & Puritans

Louis XIV

which king started France exploration overseas?

Samuel de Champlain

"Father of New France" who joined the Huron Indians against the Iroquois; created 1st settlement in Quebec


#1 valuable resource in Canada

coureurs de bois

"runners of the woods" ; trouble-making fur trappers who were drunk & gave funny names to lands


were against the French for their excessive beaver killing, drunkeness, diseases, etc


played vital roles as explorers/geographers in Canada while trying to convert Indians

Antoine Cadillac

discovered Detroit "cityof straits"

Robert de la Salle

named Louisiana after Louis XIV

Nova Scotia

King William's & Queen Anne's war were between the Americans & the coureurs de bois; Americans received ______

Captain Jenkins

his ear got cut by the Spanish which led to war between the English & Spanish

King George's War

aka war of austrian succession where Americans got Louisbourg

treaty of 1748

this treaty gave Louisbourg back to French

Ohio Valley

was wanted by Americans & French


violated claims of English Colonists (incl. George Washington) but they still set up forts in the River


Fort Duquesne was where Monongahela & Allegneny Rivers meet to form the Ohio River in ______

Fort Necessity

the French defeated Washington here

7 years war

aka french & indian war

William Pitt

Britain statesman who declared "America was conquered in Germany" because France were weak in this war

Frederick the Great

(German) replied France, Austria, Russia

Albany, NY

British Govt. summoned congress here to keep Indians loyal to British

join or die

slogan of Ben Franklin's snake