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Unit 1, 2, 3

Bering Land Bridge

Connected Asia and North America during ice age. Primary route of ancient Americans.

The Norse

(ca 1050) AKA the Vikings. Early visitors to New Foundland. Leif Ericson, etc.


(1492) Reached the New World for Spain. Probably the Bahamas. Three additional voyages.

Treaty of Tordesillas

(1494) With Pope's approval, Spain and Portugal split New World at the 46th meridian.

John Cabot

(1497) Sailing for England, he "discovers" North America.

Amerigo Vespucci

(1499) Explored coast of South America. Continents named for him by German cartographer.


(1513) "Discovers" the Pacific Ocean and claims it for Spain.


(1519) Died in the Philippines. His expedition was the first to circumnavigate the globe.

The Aztec

Indian civilization of Central America. Replaced the Maya. Defeated by Cortez (1519) for their gold.

The Inca

Indian civilization of South America. Located in the Andes. Defeated by Pizarro (1531) for their silver.

The Mound Builders

Indian civilization of North America. Less centralized. In decline by 1500.

Spanish Explorers of North America

DeLeon (Florida). Narvaez and DeSoto (Gulf Plains). Coronado (S. West).


Spanish system of forced labor in Central and South America.

St. Augustine

(1565) First Spanish settlement in North America.

Great Banks

Fishing grounds off Canadian coast where fishermen established summer camps.

French Explorers of North America

Verrazzano (Atlantic Coast). Cartier (St. Lawrence). Champlain (Quebec).


(1578) First to see America as a place for the English to live. Lost at sea on return voyage.


(1587) Raleigh's colony in North Carolina that disappeared. Relief fleet delayed by Spanish Armada.


(1607) First successful English Colony in North America. Bad start as colonists search for gold.

John Smith

Saved Jamestown with strict discipline (no work, no food). Rescued by Pocahontas.

John Rolfe

Saved Jamestown with introduction of West Indian tobacco. Married Pocahontas.


(1608) First French settlement in North America. Based on fur trade with Indians.

Henry Hudson

(1609) Sailed up "Hudson" river and claimed area for Holland.


House of Burgesses meets in Virginia. First African Americans arrive in Virginia. Slavery develops slowly.


Founded by 102 Separatist Pilgrims under the leadership of William Bradford.

Mayflower Compact

America's first written charter of government. Less important to future than often held.

New Amsterdam

(1624) Peter Minuit purchased Manhattan from Indians and set up Dutch colony.

Massachusetts Bay Colony

(1630) AKA Boston. Puritan colony led by John Winthrop. Church members vote.


(1634) Founded by Cecilius Calvert, Lord Baltimore, as a refuge for Catholics.

Maryland Toleration Act

(1649) Religious freedom for all who believed in the Trinity.

Rhode Island

(1636) Founded by Roger Williams for purpose of religious liberty.

Anne Hutchinson

Amateur theologian, banished to Rhode Island after criticizing sermons.


(1636) Founded by Thomas Hooker for largely economic purposes.

Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

Government by simple agreement among themselves. All could vote.

Great Puritan Migration

(ca 1630s) Movement of Puritans to New England. Ended with Interegnum.

Restoration Colonies

(post 1660) Founded after Interegnum. NY. NJ. NC. SC. PA. DA.

New York

(1664) New Holland surrendered to English by Peter Stuyvesant.

King Philip's War

(1675) Wampanoag chief leads raids that kill 2,000 New Englanders. Soon defeated.

Bacon's Rebellion

(1676) In VA. Sparked by Indian attacks. Largest popular uprising before Revolution.


(1682) Founded by William Penn as a colony for Quakers and other Christians.

La Salle

(1682) Reaches New Orleans and claims all the lands drained by Mississippi for France.


(ca 1650) Economy regulated for the good of the state. Sought "favorable balance of trade."

Navigation Acts

(1651,1660,1663, 1673) British ships. Enumerated goods. Imports through England.

Salutary Neglect

Colonies not strictly monitored or administered from 1700-1750. Free to self-govern.

Salem Witch Trials

(1692) Religious hysteria leads to 20 executions in Massachusetts.

Three Types

Royal (by the Crown), Self-governing (by the colonists), and Proprietary (by the owner).

Three Reasons

Religious, political, and economic. Starts economic, then religious/political, then economic again.

Three Locations

New England, Middle, and Southern. Chesapeake region connects middle and southern.

Contest for the Continent

Four wars between 1689 and 1763 to determine ownership of North America, etc.


(1773) Founded by James Oglethorpe as a refuge for debtors, prisoners, and the insane.

Salutary Neglect

The colonies ranked at best 3rd among British concerns, after India and obtaining naval stores.

Virtual Representation

British theory of representation not requiring direct election of representatives.

Direct Representation

American experience. Required direct election of representatives responsible to electorate.

New England Town

Featured common use of land and direct democracy via town meeting.

Small Farms

By far the most common lifeway. Family unit provided work, education, religion, healthcare, etc.

Coastal City

Based on trade. Allowed specialization, ex. dance teacher. Considered wicked by most Americans.

Southern Plantation

Emphasized staple crop such as rice, tobacco, indigo, or sugarcane. Based on chattel slavery.


First Africans arrived in Jamestown 1619; slavery slow to develop; too expensive, but common by 1660.

Slavery, Part B

Slaves treated better than in West Indies; 4.5% of New World total became 30% today.

The Great Awakening

(ca 1740s) Religious revival based on emotional response; ex. Whitfield; weakened religion.

Jonathan Edwards

Brilliant theologian; favored Awakening; ex. "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God."

Old Lights

Favored a more rational and traditional approach to religion; against Awakening; feared emotionalism.

New Lights

Favored Awakening; undermined position of clergymen; attracted to itinerant preachers.

The Enlightenment

AKA the eighteenth century; AKA the Age of Reason; confidence in rational thought.


Rational religion that portrayed god as a clockmaker; no miracles; no divine intervention of any kind.

John Lock

Enlightenment political theorist; natural law; natural rights to "life, liberty, and property."

Albany Congress

(1754) Colonial meeting to discuss common defense; Franklin's intercolonial union rejected.

French and Indian War

AKA Seven Years War. (1754-1763). English under Pitt defeated French and captured Canada.

Pontiac's Rebellion

(1763) Indians attack Detroit and settlements as far South as Maryland; eventually defeated.

Proclamation of 1763

Forbade colonists from crossing Appalachians; intended to prevent trouble with the Indians.

George Grenville

Sought to regulate colonies and have them help pay for enormous cost of French and Indian War.

Quartering, Sugar, and Currency Acts

Three Grenville measures designed to regulate and tax the colonies.

The Stamp Act

(1765) Grenville's tax on legal documents and printed materials (even playing cards and dice).

Stamp Act Congress

(1765) Colonial meeting in New York to demand repeal of the Stamp (and Sugar) Acts.

Taxation Without Representation

Colonial argument; however, they opposed representation in Parliament.

Son's of Liberty

Organized by such men as Samuel Adams to use violence against tax collectors.

Non-importation Agreements

Economic weapon by which colonists refused to import British goods until repeal.

Declaratory Act

(1766) Accompanied repeal and stated that Parliament could pass laws "in all cases whatsoever."

Townshend's Folly

(1767) Like Grenville, passed duties on imports. This time: lead, paint, paper, glass,and tea.

Letters From a Pennsylvania Farmer

John Dickinson's eloquent arguments against theTownshend Acts.

"The Boston Massacre"

(1770) Troops sent to enforce Townshend Acts kill 5 colonists; Crispus Attucks, RIP.

Gaspee Affair

(1772) Hated British vessel runs aground and and is burned by Rhode Islanders.

Committees of Correspondence

Formed after England bypasses Rhode Island courts in prosecuting Gaspee Affair.

The Tea Act

(1773) Passed by Lord North; kept Townshend duty on tea; lowered price; led to Boston Tea Party.

Intolerable Acts

(1774) AKA Coercive Acts. Punished Boston for Tea Party; ex. closed port until tea paid for.

The Quebec Act

(1774) Organized Canada without representative assembly; extended it to Ohio River; ominous to colonists.

1st Continental Congress

(1774) Met in Philadelphia to protest Intolerable Acts; adopted Suffolk Resolves & "Association."

Lexington and Concord

(April 19, 1775) First battles of the Revolution; "Shot heard around the world" at Lexington; Guerilla warfare.

Loyalists(AKA Tories)

Against independence; a good number.

Patriots(AKA Whigs)

For independence; the majority.

Bunker Hill

(1775) AKA Breed's Hill. "Don't fire until you see the whites of their eyes." British force American retreat, but with heavy losses.

2nd Continental Congress

(1775) America's first central government; approved Declaration of Independence.

Prohibitory Act

(1775) George III declares colonists in rebellion and outside his protection.

Thomas Paine

(1776) His pamphlet "Common Sense" argued persuasively for independence.

Declaration of Independence

(1776) Contained political theory, grievances, and formal declaration of war.


(1777) American victory that leads to French Alliance.

Valley Forge

(1777-1778) Washington passes desperate winter while British are snug in Philadelphia.


(1781) British under Cornwallis caught between Washington and French fleet surrender; last battle.

Articles of Confederation

(1781) America's first formal government; gave little power to central government.

Newburgh Conspiracy

(1783) Army officers complain of government's weakness; Washington calms them.

Treaty of Paris

(1763) Formally ended the war; independence attained; left many issues with Britain unresolved.

Experimental Period

(1776-1789) Attempts to govern America. 2nd Continental Congress then Articles of Confederatin then Constitution.

Massachusettes Constitution

(1780) Created by a special convention and therefore superior to the legislature. Model for United States.

Weaknesses of the Articles

Congress could not levy taxes, raise troops, or regulate commerce.

Land Ordinance of 1785

Divided Northwest into townships of 36 square miles and sections of 1 square mile. 16th section for schools.

Northwest Ordinance of 1787

Established process of equal statehood; 60,000 needed; no slaves; religious liberty.

Annapolis Convention

(1786) Called to consider extending national authority to regulation of commerce.

Shay's Rebellion

(1786) 2,000 farmers from western Massachusetts resist high taxes and foreclosures; quickly put down.

The Federal Convention

(1787) 55 "founding fathers" meet in Philadelphia to draft the Constitution. Madison dominates.

Federal System

The split of powers between the central government and the state governments.

Separation of Powers

The split of the central government into three parts that "check and balance" eachother.

The Great Compromise

Split of the Congress into the House (based on population) and the Senate (based on equality).

Three-fifths Compromise

Each slave to be counted as 3/5 of a person for taxation and representation purposes.

Slave Trade Compromise

Congress could not interfere with the international slave trade until 1808.

Articles 1-7

1. Legislative 2. Executive 3. Judiciary 4. States 5. Amendments 6. Supremacy Clause 7. Ratification (1789)


Those supporting ratification (Madison, etc.)


Those opposing ratification (Henry, etc.)

Federalist Papers

85 articles by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay; expounded the benefits and safeguards in the Constitution.

Bill of Rights

(1791) First 10 amendments; basic limits on federal government; needed to achieve ratification

George Washington

Victorious general, presiding officer of Fed. Con., and 1st President of the United States.

The Cabinet

Congress est. Departments of State, Treasury, War, and Justice; also the postmaster general.

Report on Public Credit

(1790) Hamilton's plan to pay the nation's full debt (including states) at face value.

1st Bank of the United States

(1791) Hamilton's financial institution to promote commerce and industry.

"Strict" versus "Loose"

Should the Constitution be interpreted word for word or more broadly.

Citizen Genet

Minister of rev. France to the United States; a fool, he meddled in United States policy and lost friends for France.

Whiskey Rebellion

(1794) Pennsylvania farmers rise up to protest Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey; quickly collapses.

The Jay Treaty

(1794) Extremely generous to UK; Hamilton supported it; George Washington reluctantly signed it.

Pinckney Treaty

(1795) A better treaty with Spain that guaranteed navigation of the Mississippi, right of deposit, etc.

11th Amendment

(1795) Only citizens of a state can bring a case against that state in federal court.

Two Term Precedent

Washington decides to step down after 8 years, once again living out the Cinncinatus myth.

Farewell Address

(1797) Washington warns against foreign entanglements and danger of "factions," e.g. political parties.

XYZ Affair

(1797) Talleyrand asks for a bribe through W,X,Y, and Z; this stirs violent anti-French sentiment.

Alien and Sedition Acts

(1798) Federalist measures; among most repressive acts in United States history.

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

(1798) Madison and Jefferson's proposal that states could "nullify" acts of Congress.

Washington D.C.

(1800) Designed by Pierre L'Enfant; settled upon for its central location.

Hamiltonian Federalists

Pro UK, business, loose construction

Jeffersonian Republicans

pro France, farmers, and strict construction

Revolution of 1800

Jefferson's Republicans beat Adam's Federalists; 1st peaceful transfer of power.

Marbury versus Madison

(1803) Marshall's decision established Judicial Review; concerned "midnight judges."

Louisiana Purchase

(1803) From France for 15 million; doubled size of country; contradicted strict construction.

12th Amendment

(1804) Distinct ballots for President and Vice President; to prevent repeat of 1796 and 1800.

Essex Junto

(ca 1804) Aaron Burr and others plot to detach New England from country; leads to murder of Hamilton.

Lewis and Clark

(1804-1805) Explored Western territories as far as the Pacific Ocean; also Sakajawea and York.

Embargo Act

(1807) Replaced Non-intercourse Act; Jefferson closed United States ports to avoid war; very unpopular.

Battle of Tippecanoe

(1811) William Henry Harrison defeats Tecumseh's Indian confederation

War of 1812

Caused by impressment, seizure of cargoes, incitement of Indians, failure to abandon forts, etc.

Hartford Convention

(1814) New England Federalists oppose war and discuss secession from union.

Treaty of Ghent

(1815) Brought peace, but settled none of the disagreements leading to the War of 1812.

Battle of New Orleans

(1815) Jackson defeats British in major action, but after the war has ended.

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