13 terms

APES - Unit 6: Agriculture

Mr. Sherman
STUDY
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Terms in this set (...)

06.07
GMOs
Pros/Cons
GMO = genetically modified organism (e.g. changing DNA of corn so creates a natural pesticide)
Advantages: larger crop yields, use less pesticides, add vitamins (e.g. "golden rice" includes Vitamin A)
Disadvantages: decreases biodiversity, can contaminate non-GMO crops, farmers need to buy every year, can deplete soil nutrients quicker, may have unknown health issues, may cause allergies
06.01
Green Revolution techniques
the industrial revolution of agriculture. AKA modern agriculture (vs. traditional agriculture).
Mechanization: use of machinery
Economies of scale: large fields and factories, since that's cheatper (e.g. monocropping, Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations CAFOs)
GMOs (genetically modified food)
Pesticides and fertilizer
06.01
Green Revolution pros/cons
Advantage: more food available so can avoid starvation; cheaper so more have access to food
Disadvantages: more fossil fuel use and CO2, soil erosion, salinization of soil, spread of disease in CAFOs and slaughterhouses, use of antibiotics in CAFOs, eutrophication from fertilizer runoff
06.01
Fertilizers
contain N and P; helps crops grow, but cause eutrophication when runoff into water bodies
06.11
Energy subsidy
energy input for energy output
Modern agriculture requires more energy input
06.05
Irrigation techniques
Ways of giving crops water
Flood irrigation
Furrow (water in rows between plants)
Spray
Drip irrigation (most efficient)
06.15
Pesticides:
Advantages, Disadvantages
Advantages: fewer pests mean more crop yield, less lost/spoiled food, cheaper food
Disadvantages: "pesticide treadmill" (pests evolve resistance to pesticides, so you need new ones), pesticides runoff and poison environment
06.17
Integrated Pest Management
Get rid of pests without pesticides
Natural predators (add them, or provide habitats for them, e.g. trees for birds)
Crop rotation (pests for corn can't eat the soy the next year)
Pest-resistant crops (e.g. GMOs)
Traps for pests (e.g. pheromone traps)
06.01
CAFO
concentrated animal feeding operation; think: Food, Inc. movie
06.13
Soil salinization
evaporating water leaves salt behind
07.17
Maximum sustainable yield
the maximum amount of a renewable resource that can be used without limiting future use of that resource
07.17
Fishing techniques
most mass fishing techniques catch unwanted organisms (bycatch)
bottom trawling (scrapes bottom)
long-line fishing (long fishing line with many hooks)
drift/gill nets (long nets left in water)
purse seine (nets with giant drawstring)
aquaculture (CAFOs for fish)
07.01
Forestry
clear-cutting increases runoff, landslides, nitrates in streams, less habitat