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Bio 101 Final study Guide
Terms in this set (51)
The intentional release of a natural enemy to attack a pest population
the intentional release of a natural enemy to attack a pest population
A natural predator or disease released into an area to fight a harmful insect.
A population or group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce viable, fertile offspring, but are unable to produce viable, fertile offspring with members of other populations
A group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring
the total mass or weight of all the living organisms in a given population or area
Amount of living tissue in a trophic level
large distinct terrestrial region having similar climate, soil, plants & animals
A complex biotic community characterized by distinctive plant and animal species and maintained under the climatic conditions of the region, especially such a community that has developed to climax.
The use of organisms to detoxify and restore polluted and degraded ecosystems
The use of living organisms to detoxify a polluted area
Pertaining to life; environmental factors created by living organisms
the living organisms in an ecosystem
describes living factors in the environment,
nonliving, physical features of the environment, including air, water, sunlight, soil, temperature, and climate
1. 540-490 mya. Paleozoic era, Animals, protest diversify, first vertebrates
the period that began when the oldest easily identifiable fossils first appeared (544 million years ago to present), also when first vertebrates appeared.
measure of the impact human activities have on the environment in terms of the amount of greenhouse gases produced, measured in units of carbon dioxide
biocapacity, The ecological footprint is a measure of human demand on the Earth's ecosystems. It compares human demand with planet Earth's : food, fuel, water, housing, and waste disposal.
- chemical process that uses oxygen to convert chemical energy stored in organic molecules into ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
- the process in which a cell breaks down sugar or other organic compounds to release energy used for cellular work; may be anaerobic or aerobic depending on the availability of oxygen.
- Cellular respiration
C6H12O6 + O2 → CO2 + H2O + Energy
Process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches.
6CO2 + 12H2O + Sunlight ---> 6O2 + C6H12O6 + 6H2O
Carbondioxide + Water →sunlight+chlorophyll → Glucose + Oxygen
Charles Darwin natural selection
-- Nature selects which traits are more favorable, which enables organisms to evolve and reproduce
- Wrote book (On the Origin of Species) stating orgainic evolution, species of plants & animals develope through a struggle for existance. Some organisms are more adaptable to the environment than others.
organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy
organelle found in some plant cells and certain unicellular organisms where photosynthesis takes place
- A threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus. Each chromosome consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins.
- Gene-carring structure found in the nucleus eukarotic cell and most visible during mitisis and meiosis;
- The biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein
- Sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
- Regions of DNA within each chromosome
- Approximately the last 63 million years, the current geologic era, which began 65.5 million years ago; also called the Age of Mammals
- The Cenozoic spans only about 65 million years, from the end of the Cretaceous Period and the extinction of non-avian dinosaurs to the present. The Cenozoic is sometimes called the Age of Mammals
- 65 million years ago to present
- its genetic makeup or allele combination
- the genetic makeup, or combination of alleles of an organism
-All of the alleles in all the individuals that make up a population
-the combined genetic information of all members of a particular population
- organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce food from inorganic compounds; also called an autotroph,
- organism that makes its own food (PLANTS)
-organism that obtains food by eating producers (autotrophs) or other consumers ( ANIMAL AND HUMANS)
, organism that relies on other organisms for its energy and food supply; also called a heterotroph
- Organisms that break down wastes and dead organisms and return raw materials to the environment ( FUNGI AND BACTERIA)
- Organisms that break down wastes and dead organisms and return raw materials to the environment., fungi and bacteria that break complex organic material into smaller molecules.
limiting factors that affect the population depending on the size (biotic)
increasing effects as the population increases. ex. disease, competition, parasites, food, shelter, water, space, etc.
- A death rate that rises as population density rises
- factor such as temperature, storms, floods, drought, or habitat disruption that affects all populations, regardless of their density.
- factor such as temperature, storms, floods,or habitat disruption that affects all populations(BUT DON'T DEPENDENT ON POPULATION)
-process of scientific inquiry that focuses on describing nature
-the process of scientific inquiry that focuses on describing nature
Basic steps used by scienistist in solving problems and uncovering facts.
A series of steps used by scientists in solving problems
Endangered Species Act
-Authorizes the determination and listing of species as endangered or threatened and prohibits the unauthorized taking, possession, sale and transport of those species; applies to any federal activity, including grants and contracts.,
-Law designed to protect plant and animal species in danger of extinction.
- a species whose numbers are so small that the species is at risk of extinction
- species whose population size is rapidly declining and will become extinct if the trend continues
- very importatn to the ecosystem through strong interactions with other species that affect health and survival
- a species that influences the survival of many other species in an ecosystem
- the body of water where salt and fresh water meet (coastal area)
- His region occurs where freshwater meets salt water. The water is shallow, high in nutrients and highly oxygenated. Both plants and protists populate the estuary. The shallow water and tree roots create hiding spots for juvenile fish and young reptiles from large predatory fish. Birds nest in the estuary to protect their young from predators while gaining easy access to food for growing chicks. In these ways, the estuary is a nursery for both fish, birds & reptiles. A huge variety of organisms depend directly upon the estuary at some point in their life.
first trophic level
level made up of primary producers called autotrophs (make their own food from sunlight/chemical vents, base of every food chain)
- process by which atmospheric gases trap heat close to Earth's surface and prevent it from escaping into space
-The trapping of heat by a planet's atmosphere
- is an increase in the earth's temperature caused by increased amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.,
-the hypothessized rise in Earth's average temperature from excess carbon dioxide
- term used to refer to a cell that contains only a single set of chromosomes and therefore only a single set of genes (n)
- (genetics) an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number (2n)
the quality of being similar or corresponding in position or value or structure or function
Similarity in characteristics resulting from a shared ancestry.
plants and animals that have migrated to places where they are not native
plants and animals that have migrated to areas where they did not originate; often displace native species by outcompeting them for resources
- Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
- prophase--chromatin condenses into chromosomes, centrioles seperate, spindle begins to form, nuclear envelope breaks down; metaphase--chromosomes line up along the center of the cell, each chromosome is connected to a spindle fiber at its centromere; anaphase--sister chromatids seperate into individual chromosomes and are moved apart; telophase--chromosomes gather at opposite ends of the cell and lose their distinct shapes, two new nuclear envelopes form
- (cyanobacteria, live anywhere sunlight is avaliable, oldest
photosynthetic organism, changed ancient atmosphere)
- photosynthetic organisms use energy of sunlight and carbon in atmosphere(co2) to make organic compounds
an organism that eats both plants and animals.
an organism that eats only plants.
consumers that eat only animals; or animals that eat other animals
- organism that feeds on plant and animal remains and other dead matter, decomposers
- Feed on dead organic matter
- quickly appear when there is a disturbance or suddenly available resources; weeds are a common example
- Appear when opportunities arise ,many weeds : Quickly invade a habitat, quickly reproduce, and then die, quickly appear when opportunities arise ,many weeds
an individual living thing; a living thing that has (or can develop) the ability to act or function independently (A STUDENT)
A group of organisms of the same species populating a given area
STUDENT IN A CLASS (MICE POPULATION
2 or more different populations in same area, student
A system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their physical environment
The name of the single landmass that broke apart 200 million years ago and gave rise to today's continents.
- The level of development that can be maintained in a country without depleting resources to the extent that future generations will be unable to achieve a comparable level of development.
- Using natural resources at a rate that does not deplete them
-The branch of biology concerned eith idnetifying, and naming, and classifying species
The science of classifying organisms the science of describing, naming, and classifying organisms
Discipline of classifying organisms and assigning each organism a universally accepted name
T/F The Environmental Protection Agency identified manufacturing as the largest nonpoint source of water pollution.
what are the advantages of plumpy'nut?
Hawks that eat field mice are practicing mutualism. True or False?
true or false: It is a violation of federal law to use an herbicide in a manner inconsistent with its labeling.
Recommended textbook explanations
Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry
David L Nelson, Michael M. Cox
Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Peter V Minorsky, Steven A. Wasserman
Campbell Biology: Concepts and Connections
Eric J. Simon, Jane B. Reece, Jean L. Dickey, Kelly A. Hogan, Martha R. Taylor
Jung Choi, Mary Clark, Matthew Douglas
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