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Patho Exam 1
Terms in this set (36)
The nurse is interviewing a client during the admission process to an acute care facility. The nurse asks the client what brought them in to seek health care. The client states, "I have been very dizzy and nauseated for the last 3 days." What information has the nurse received from this client?
The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as which of the following?
state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being
A mother who is with her son when a cast is removed from his arm asks the nurse "What is wrong with my son's arm? It looks so small!" Which of the following is the nurse's best response?
"The cells have atrophied due to lack of use and will regain their size as he starts to use the arm."
A client receives a phone call from her gynecologist's office nurse and is informed that her Pap test results identified mild dysplasia. The best explanation for the nurse to provide would be:
"Minor degrees of dysplasia are associated with chronic irritation or inflammation. However, we will need to do additional diagnostic studies to confirm the diagnosis."
Which of the following would help a nurse best describe a finding of hypertrophy on a lab report?
increased size of the cell
What does the nurse expect a client to exhibit who is experiencing acute stress?
Elevation in vital sign parameters
Selye suggested that stress could have positive influences on the body, and these periods of positive stress are called:
The fight-or-flight response is a manifestation of the stress reaction caused by which part of the nervous system?
Each cell has 46 chromosomes, 23 from the mother and 23 from the father. The chromosomes are paired with alleles of genes that are paired, and if both members of the gene pair are identical, the person is considered homozygous. What is the person considered if both members of the gene pair are not identical?
A person's genotype can best be described as which of the following?
The genetic makeup of an individual
The nurse is caring for a client with suspected dehydration. Which of these results does the nurse recognize will help confirm this diagnosis?
Elevated urine specific gravity
During the assessment of a client with heart failure, the nurse uses finger pressure to determine if edema is present in the lower extremities. When would the nurse document pitting edema?
Indentation remains after the finger has been removed.
The nurse recognizes the role of the lungs in acid-base balance is regulation of which of the following?
Respiratory alkalosis can be caused by a respiratory rate in excess of that which maintains normal plasma Pco2 levels. What is a common cause of respiratory alkalosis?
The nurse is caring for a client with worsening respiratory acidosis. Which of these interventions does the nurse anticipate if the client's condition continues to deteriorate?
The nurse is caring for a client with metabolic alkalosis. Which of these arterial blood gas results supports this diagnosis?
pH of 7.50 and HCO3 of 45 mEq/L
A prison inmate contracted tuberculosis during a recent outbreak. The nurse caring for these inmates correctly identifies which of the following as the mode of transmit for this disease?
A pneumonia that occurs 48 hours or more after admission to the hospital is considered:
A client, newly diagnosed with lung cancer, asks the nurse why the health care provider has ordered a positron emission tomography (PET) scan. Which response by the nurse is best?
"This diagnostic procedure will let the doctor know if you have any mestastatic lesions in your body."
A patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease presents to the emergency department with difficulty breathing. Physical examination reveals bluish skin, nail beds, and mucous membranes. Which of the following terms correctly describes this condition?
Acute-onset bronchial asthma causes wheezing and breathlessness as a result of which of the following?
A patient with a 25-year history of smoking is diagnosed with emphysema. Physical assessment reveals an increased anterior-posterior chest diameter. Which of the following terms should the nurse use to document this finding?
Prolonged immobility is implicated in the development of which of the following disorders?
Atelectasis and pulmonary embolism
A patient is diagnosed with pulmonary embolism. Which of the following symptoms would most likely be present?
Chest pain and dyspnea
A man sustained a puncture injury to his chest that caused a tension pneumothorax to form. This is a life-threatening condition because:
Trapped, inspired air collapses the lung.
Which client most likely faces the highest risk of developing secondary pulmonary hypertension?
A client with COPD and a 35 pack-year smoking history
A patient who was recently diagnosed with cancer and is worried that his cancer might spread asks the nurse how cancer spreads? Which of the following would be the nurse's best response?
"Cancer spreads through the lymph channels and the blood vessels."
Which of the following is the primary advantage of targeted cancer therapy?
It uses drugs that selectively attack malignant cancer cells.
Which of the following explains how T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes differ?
T lymphocytes mature in the thymus gland; B lymphocytes mature in the bone marrow.
A diabetic client has injured his foot while walking barefoot on the lawn. On admission, which of the following assessment findings would be considered a localized cardinal sign of acute inflammation?
Redness and edema at the injured site
Following an injury that resulted in a major wound, the client notes that on day 2, the wound looks a little different. The client also notes that if he just brushes the skin accidentally with a towel, it bleeds easily. The client asks why this happens. Which is the best response by the nurse?
"There is new granulation tissue forming that contains many newly developed, fragile capillary
The course of any infectious disease progresses through several distinct stages after the pathogen enters the host. Although the duration may vary, which of the following is the hallmark of the prodromal stage?
Initial appearance of symptoms
The mediators involved in type I hypersensitivity allergic responses are released from which of the following?
Select the statement that best describes autoimmune disease.
Autoimmune diseases represent a disruption in self-tolerance that results in damage to body tissues by the immune system.
Which one of the following is an AIDS-defining condition?
CD4+ count less than 200 cells/microliter of blood
While teaching about HIV/AIDS to a group of high school seniors, the school health nurse will begin by explaining the basic facts which will likely include which of the following information?
HIV is different from other viruses since it is a retrovirus that selectively attacks the body's immune cells.
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