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Terms in this set (84)
distance from one wingtip to another wingtip
what is an airfoil
anything designed to produce lift when it moved through the air
sufficient internal support structures to keep it steady in its location
Two designations of wings
Cantilever or semi-cantilever
sufficient internal support structures to keep it steady in its location
requires additional external support structures
run from the fuselage to the middle of the wing
Run from the middle of the wing to the tip. responsible for the roll, or movement around the longitudinal axis. Joystick controls them.
Distance from one wingtip to the other
Distance form the leading edge to the trailing edge
curvature of the airfoil, Heavily curved= High Camber
Shape of the wings when viewed from overhead
when the wings are not attached parallel to the horizontal plane, the angle they make is called this
Positive dihedral wing angle
wings angling above the horizontal plane. Keeps the plane stable when it rolls and encourages the plane to return to its original position.
wings pointed slightly downwards for more maneuverability (fighters)
What are the six basic components of a fixed winged aircraft?
Wings, Fuselage, Tail Assembly, Landing Gear, Power plant, and fighting controls and control surfaces
Different shapes of wings
Straight, Sweep and Delta
may be rectangular, rounded or tapered. Commonly found on sailplanes, gliders and other low speed aircraft
provides better handling at high speeds. Most common used wing style.
shape is triangular
main body of the airplane. Includes the cockpit, cabin, cargo area and attachment points for external components.
support structure that runs the length of the fuselage
Support structure that runs the length perpendicular to the fuselage
includes the vertical and horizontal stabilizers, elevators, rudders and trim tabs.
fixed surfaces that extend from the back end of the fuselage
positioned along the trailing edges of the horizontal stabilizers
connected to the trailing edge of the vertical stabilizers
moveable surfaces that extend off the trailing edges of the rudder, elevators and ailerons for small adjustments
Tricycle and conventional arrangements. wheel sets are positioned either under each wing or on the sides of the fuselage
Having the third wheel set under the nose of the plane.
part of the plane that supplies the thrust
Powerplant in a propeller plane
propellers. have tilted blades which push ari backwards and thereby push the plane forward.
Two types of propellers
fixed-pitch and variable-pitch
variable pitched propellers
can not be adjusted by the pilot. allow the pilot to adjust pitch of the propeller blades to alter the amount of thrust being generated.
what four sources must pilot manage during flight
lift, gravity, thrust and drag
varies with large changes in altitudess
includes the aircraft and any internal or external equipment that will remain a part of the plane during flight
the basic weight plus the crew and any other nonexpendable items not included in the basic weight
total weight of the aircraft and all contents at any given time
Zero Fuel Weight
The weight of the airplane when it has no usable fuel
upward force of air pressure on the aircraft primarily the wings, that allows it to achieve and maintain altitude.
The speed required for generating lift. generated by the power plant of the aircraft
thrust is countered by drag. faster the aircraft goes the more thrust is required just to overcome the drag.
Different kinds of drag
Induced and profile drag
drag that results form the wings generating lift
drag that exists when any object moves through the air. pushing air aside as you move.
density and speed of the air
what factors is density determined by?
temperature pressure and humidity of the air.
Denser air produces?
Different kinds of wind while flying
headwind and tail wind
Flying into the wind, the aircraft will have a higher speed relaive to the surrounding air, which means it will experience greater drag and lift forces
flying in the same direction of the wind. experience reduced drag and lift.
three axes of flight attitude
Longitudinal, Lateral and Vertical. all meet at the planes center of mass
Roll, controlled by Ailerons. axis extends from the center forward toward the nose and rearward toward the tail.
Extends from the center out to the right and left, perpendicular to the longitudinal axis. Pitch motion and controlled by the elevators.
extends straight upward and downward from the aircrafts center, perpendicular tot he other axes. Yaw motion and controlled by the rudder.
Primary Flight controls surfaces
Ailerons, rudder and elevator, Throttle
Control the planes pitch or movement around the lateral axis. attached tot he trailing edges of the horizontal stabilizers at the rear of the aircraft.
large flap attached by a hinge to the vertical stabilizer. controlled by two pedals on the floor of the cockpit
Secondary Flight control surfaces
Flaps, leading edge devices, spoilers and trim systems.
connected to the trailing edges of the wings. raised or lowered to adjust the lift or drag.
Leading edge devices
fixed slats, moveable slats and lead edge flaps
attached to the wings of some airplanes in order to diminish the lift and increase the drag.
Four Basic Flight Maneuvers
straight and level flight, turning, climbing and descending
Three classes of turn
shallow medium and deep
bank of less than 20 degrees and tends to stabilized back to level angle
has a bank of roughly 20-45 degrees and will stay in plane until pilot adjusts the aircraft
bank is greater than 45 degrees. plane will try to increase angle and pilot must counter this.
Helicopters apply most of their thrust...
Helicopters require these three controls
cyclic (stick), collective and directional control system
tilting the stick forward tilts the rotor...
a tube running up from the cockpit floor to the left of the pilot. can be used to alter the engine torque. controls the angle of the main rotor blades
Directional control system
pair of pedals the pilot uses to alter the pitch of the tail rotor blades
the increase in rotational speed that occurs when the weight of a spinning object moves closer to the rotation center
areas controlled by the aircraft traffic controller
general aviation airport runway length and width
800 ft and 26 ft
International airport runway length and width
18,000 ft and 260 ft
not meant to be traveled by aircraft and are marked yellow
three basic types of runways
visual, non precision instrument and precision instrument.
non precision instrument runway
make approach using instruments. can provide feedback on the horizontal position of the plane as it nears. small and medium airports
Runway Centerline Lighting System
line of white lights mounted every fifty feet along the centerline. blink red and white at 3000 ft and solid red at 1000 ft.
Runway end lights
run the width of the both ends of the runway. appear red on the ground and green from the sky
approaching lighting system
set of strobe lights and or lightbars that indicate the end of the runway from which descending aircraft should arrive.
Visual Approach Slope Indicators
White lights indicate the lower glide path litsna dn red lights idiot the upper. Should be visible fro 20 miles at night and 3-5 during the day.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
AFOQT Aviation Information (flight instruments)
AFOQT: Aviation Information
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