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the muscular tube between the pharynx and the stomach


a muscular pouch located in the abdomen, the chemical digestion of proteins begins

cardiac sphincter

located at the base of the esophagus and functions to prevent food materials from entering the esophagus from the stomach

pyloric sphincter

the sphincter muscle of the pylorus that separates the stomach from the duodenum

small intestine

The section of the intestine that is between the stomach and large intestine; site of most absorption of nutrients


primarily involved in water absorption and feces formation; the part of the large intestine between the cecum and the rectum


the terminal portion of the large intestine where the feces are stored until they are eliminated


A muscular opening at the end of the rectum through which waste material is eliminated from the body


multi-chambered, muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body


Organ near the stomach that produces, stores, and eliminates blood cells

renal artery

Carries blood from aorta to kidney

renal vein

blood vessel that carries blood away from the kidney and toward the heart


organ responsible for cleansing and purifying the blood


one of two glands located on each side of the pelvic cavity that produce ova and female sex hormones


a tube connecting the ovaries and the uterus


Located on outside of male body which produces sperm and testosterone.

seminal cord

Tube between teste and penis that transports sperm

dorsal cord

(Spinal Cord) - protective bony covering of nervous system

sympathetic chain of ganglia

Parallel to dorsal cord - nerves that innervate muscles for movement


that part of the central nervous system that includes all the higher nervous centers, in the skull

ciliary muscle

the tissue and muscle that surrounds the lens of the eye.


vascular layer beneath the sclera that provides nourishment to outer portion of the retina


tough, fibrous, white outer coat extending from the cornea to the optic nerve


the central focal point in the retina, around which the eye's cones cluster

optic disk

the point where the optic nerve enters the retina

vitreous chamber

Behind the lens, filled with vitreous humor, gelatinous.

posterior chamber

Space between iris and lens which is filled with aqueous humor

anterior chamber

humor-filled space between the cornea and iris


gland that secretes pancreatic juice into the duodenum, where it mixes with bile to digest food

gall bladder

stores bile produced by the liver until it is needed in the duodenum


Large organ just above the stomach that produces bile

bile duct

Moves bile from the gall bladder to the stomach


The largest artery in the body; it conducts freshly oxygenated blood from the heart to the tissues.

vena cava

either of two large veins that return oxygen-depleted blood to the right atrium of the heart


the two upper chambers of the heart- the receiving areas that pool incoming blood.


lower chamber of the heart that pumps blood out of the heart

pulmonary artery

one of two arteries (branches of the pulmonary trunk) that carry venous blood from the heart to the lungs

pulmonary vein

any of four veins that carry arterial blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart


membranous tube with cartilaginous rings that conveys inhaled air from the larynx to the bronchi


two spungy organs in the thoracic cavity enclosed by the diaphragm and rib cage; responsible for respiration


Large, flat muscle at the bottom of the chest cavity that helps with breathing


voice box; passageway for air moving from pharynx to trachea; contains vocal cords; at top of trachea


throat; passageway for food to the esophagus and air to the larynx


elastic, muscular organ that holds urine until it leaves the body


either of a pair of thick-walled tubes that carry urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder


duct through which urine is discharged in most mammals and which serves as the male genital duct


the external pouch(sac of skin) that contains the testicles,just under the penis. regulates temp


the organ through which both semen and urine leave the male body, lower body

thyroid gland

produces hormones that regulate metabolism, body heat, and bone growth


a ductless glandular organ at the base of the neck that produces lymphocytes and aids in producing immunity


in the human female reproductive system, a canal that leads from the uterus to the outside of the body

ciliary muscle

the tissue and muscle that surrounds the lens of the eye., smooth muscle portion of the ciliary body, which contracts to assist in near-vision capability


the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information


transparent structure behind the pupil that bends and focuses light rays on the retina


a ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening


transparent anterior portion of the outer covering of the eye; protective layer


the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters

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