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74 terms

World War I - World War II

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Imperialism
a cause of World War I that involved European powers competing for colonies
Nationalism
a cause of World War I - loyalty to a nation and promotion of its interests above all others
Militarism
a cause of World War I - policy of building up strong armed forces to prepare for war
Alliance System
another cause of World War I -defense agreement among nations - Triple Alliance & Triple Entente
Central Powers
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire during World War I
Allied Powers
Great Britain, France, Russia, and later the United States during World War I
Archduke Ferdinand
Heir to Austrian throne whose assassination sparked World War I
Kaiser Wilhelm I
Leader of Germany during World War I
Czar Nicholas II
Last Monarch of Russia. Led Russia into WW I
Georges Clemenceau
Leader of France during World War I
David Lloyd George
Leader of Britain during World War I
Woodrow Wilson
American President during WWI and created the Fourteen Points
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty that ended WW I. It blamed Germany for WW I and handed down harsh punishment.
1914 - 1918
Dates of World War I
League of Nations
world organization formed after World War I to maintain peace
Russian, Austro-Hungarian, and Ottman Empires
These empires ended as a result of World War I
Treaty of Versailles
signed at the end of World War I - forced to sign a war-guilt clause and pay $33 billion in reparations
Germany
This country's unrestricted submarine warfare caused the U.S. to enter World War I in 1917
Russia
This country pulled out of World War I due poltical and economic problems
League of Nations
An international peace keeping organization that did not have the power to enforce decisions
United States
This world power did not join the League of Nations
Mandate System
Allocation of former German colonies and Ottoman possessions to the victorious powers after World War I, to be administered under League of Nations supervision
Syria and Jordan
French Mandates
Jordan and Palestine
British mandates
Bolshevik Revolution
The overthrow of Russia's provisional government by Lenin and his followers - created a communist nation in Russia
New Economic Policy
Lenin's 1921 attempt to stimulate the Soviet economy
Czar Nicholas II
Russian leader who was overthrown during the first stage of the Russian Revolution
Causes of the Russian Revolution
a) Previous defeat in the Russo-Japanese War b) Landless peasants c) incompetent leadership d)Many defeats and casualties during WW I
Joseph Stalin
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition
Vladimir Lenin
Leader of the Bolshevik (later Communist) Party. He lead the Bolsheviks to victory during the Russian Revolution and the civil war that followed.
Fourteen Points
Created by President Wilson to create a lasting peace. It included: League of Nations, Freedom of the Seas, Mandate System, and Self-determination
Self-determination
the right of people to choose their own form of government
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
Germany's policy for sinking ships. This caused the United States to enter WW I in 1917
Causes of the Great Depression
1. German Reparations
2. Expansion of production capacities - U.S. dominated global economy
3. High Protective Tariffs
4. Excessive expansion of credit
5. Stock Market Crash in 1929
Impacts of Great Depression
1. High unemployment
2. Bank failures and collapse of credit
3. Collapse of prices in world trade
4. Rise of Nazi Party blaming European Jews
Nazi Party
National Socialist German Workers Party led by Hitler
Totalitarianism
Government control over every aspect of public and private life (examples: Soviet Union, Germany, and Italy during WW II)
Communism
Economic system that is controlled by the Government. No private ownership. (Soviet Union)
Five-year plans
these were economic goals set for increased industrial production in the Soviet union under Joseph Stalin
Great Purge
Beginning in 1934, Stalin's plan to eliminate all opposition to his Communist government (opposition was killed or sent to labor camps)
Collectivization
combining small farms into large, factory-like farms run by the government created by Stalin for the Soviet Union
Inflation
increased prices for goods and services combined with the reduced value of money. Germany had high inflation after World War I
Anti-semitism
Prejudice and discrimination against Jews.
Adolf Hitler
German dictator and leader of the Nazi party during World War II
Benito Mussolini
Fascist dictator of Italy during World War II
Emperor Hirohito
Emperor of Japan during WWII and was viewed as a god by the people
Hideki Tojo
Military leader of Japan during World War II
Winston Churchill
A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an Iron Curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.
1939 - 1945
Dates of World War II
Battle of Tanneberg
(WW I) Battle between Russian and German Forces. Russia was defeated due to poor planning and German use of railroads
Battle of the Somme
A 1916 WWI battle between German and British forces. Ending in a stalemate. The deadliest battle of WW II
Battle of Verdun
Longest battle of World War I. It ended in a stalemate, with both sides suffering hundreds of thousands of casualties
Battle of the Marne
World War I battle where the French stopped the German march to take Paris
Battle of Gallipoli
Also known as the Gallipoli campaign, it took place at the Gallipoli Peninsula in Turkey (WW I)
Lusitania
A British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-Boat on May 7, 1915. 128 Americans died.
Stock Market Crash
Event in which the value of stock fell so low which caused people to be left with huge debts; banks ran out of money and closed, people lost jobs; beginning of Great Depression
Protective Tariffs
Taxes on imported goods that was designed to protect American businesses
D-Day Invasion
Allied Invasion led Dwight D. Eisenhower on June 6, 1944 to free France from German control and begin the liberation of Western Europe
Fall of France
1940 - France falls under German control leaving Britain alone to fight the Germans
Battle of Britain
76 nights of consecutive bombing by the Germans but, the British never gave up
Pearl Harbor
Japanese invasion on December 7, 1941 that brought the U.S. in to WW II
Invasion of Poland
September 1, 1939 - Germany invaded Poland and 2 days later World War II began
Atomic Bomb
Weapons of mass destruction used by the U.S. on Japan to end WW II
Holocaust
A mass slaughter of Jews and other civilians, carried out by the Nazi government of Germany before and during World War II. (6 million Jews were murdered)
Zimmerman Telegram
A telegram Germany Sent to Mexico to convince Mexico to attack the U.S during WW I
Hutus and Tutsis
African tribes in Rwanda involved in the Rwandan Genocie
Pol Pot
Leader of the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia, who terrorized the people of Cambodia throughout the 1970's
Bolsheviks
Group led by Vladimir Lenin who were responsible for the Russian Revolution
George Marshall
Top Allied Commander during WW II who later created the Marshall Plan to rebuild Europe
Franklin Roosevelt
U.S. President during the Great Depression and most of WW II
Douglas MacArthur
Commander of the Allied forces in the Pacific
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Commander of the Allied forces in Europe
Harry S. Truman
Took over as President upon Roosevelt's death. Made the decision to use the atomic bombs on Japan
Armenians
Christian Armenians were slaughtered by the Ottoman Turks during WW I