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Psychology Final

STUDY
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Chapter 13
Psychological Disorders
View that psychological disorders are sicknesses is the basis of the
medical model
medical model, psychological disorders are viewed as
mental illness
medical model, mental illness is also called
psychopathology
medical model, mental illness is diagnosed on the basis of
symptoms
medical model, mental illness is cured by
therapy
universal psychological disorders
depression and schizophrenia
culture bound disorders
anorexia and bulimia
culture bound disorders
share an underlying dynamic, such as anxiety, yet differ in symptoms
most mental health workers take a _______ approach
biopsychosocial
biopsychosocial, they assume that disorders are influenced by
genetic predispositions, physiological states, inner psychological dynamics, social and cultural circumstances
Anxiety disorders are characterized by
distressing, persistent anxiety or maladapted behaviors that reduce anxiety
anxiety disorders differ from normal anxiety in their
intensity and persistence of anxiety
5 anxiety disorders
generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, phobias, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder
generalized anxiety disorder
when a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and physiologically aroused for no apparent reason
Generalized anxiety, Freud's term the anxiety is
free-floating, in other words it is not affected by external forces
generalized anxiety, can lead to physical problems
ulcers and high blood pressure
panic disorder
anxiety intensifies dramatically and unpredictably and is accompanied by chest pain or choking
people who smoke have an increased risk of
first time panic attack, because nicotine is a stimulant
phobia
an irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation
specific phobias
incapacitating fear of a specific stimuli, like thunderstorms
social phobia
when a person has an intense fear of being scrutinized by others
agoraphobia
when a person fears situations in which escape or help might not be possible when panic strikes
obsessive-compulsive disorder
when a person cannot control repetitive thoughts and actions
older people are (more/less) likely than teens and young adults to suffer from OCD
less
post-traumatic stress disorder is caused by
traumatic stress, such as that associated with witnessing atrocities or combat
post-traumatic stress disorder's symptoms include
haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumping anxiety, insomnia
people who have a sensitive limbic system are more vulnerable to this disorder
post-traumatic stress disorder
survivor resiliency
bounce-back of survivors of trauma that may suggest post-traumatic stress disorder is over-diagnosed
post-traumatic growth
people experience an increased appreciation for life
dissociative disorders
a person experiences sudden loss of memory or change in identity
dissociative identity disorder
a person who develops two or more distinct personalities
Nicholas Spranos
argued that people with dissociative identity disorders are merely playing different roles
those who accept DID as a genuine disorder point to evidence that differing personalities may be associated with
distinct brain and body states
the psychoanalytic and learning perspectives view dissociative disorders as
ways of dealing with anxiety
others view dissociative disorders as
a protective response to histories of childhood abuse
Skeptics claim dissociative disorders are
sometimes contrived by fantasy-prone people and sometimes constructed out of the therapist-patient interaction
personality disorders
exist when an individual has character traits that are enduring and impair social functioning
avoidant personality disorder
a fearful sensitivity to rejection may predispose it
schizoid personality disorder
characterized by eccentric behaviors, such as emotionless disengagement
impulsive behaviors
third cluster of personality disorders
antisocial personality
an individual who seems to have no conscience, lies, steals, is generally irresponsible, and may be criminal
antisocial personality
used to be called psychopaths
there (is/is not) a biological predisposition to antisocial and unemotional tendencies
is
antisocial adolescents tended to have been
impulsive, uninhibited, unconcerned with social rewards, low in anxiety
PET scans of murderers have revealed reduced activity in
the frontal lobe
frontal lobe
an area of the cortex that helps control impulses
in antisocial personality disorders genetics (is/is not) the whole story
is not
mood disorders are
psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes
two forms of mood disorders
following
major depressive disorder
the experience of prolonged depression with no discernible cause
bipolar disorder
when a person's mood alternated between depression and a state of mania
depression is the number one
reason that people seek mental health services
depression is the number one
cause of disability worldwide
phobias
are more common than depression
possible signs of depression
lethargy, feelings of worthlessness, loss of interest in family, friends, and activities
major depression occurs when signs last
two weeks or more with no apparent cause
depression (can/cannot) be cured without therapy
can
symptoms of mania include
euphoria, hyperactivity, a wildly optimistic state
bipolar disorder is less common among creative professionals who rely on
precision and logic
bipolar disorder is more common among creative professionals who rely on
emotional expression and vivid imagery
schizophrenia refers not to a split personality but rather a split from
reality
Three manifestations of schizophrenia are
disorganized thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions
positive symptoms
increase personality, display inappropriate behavior
negative symptoms
reduce personality: have toneless voices and expressionless faces
delusions
distorted, false beliefs of schizophrenia patients
psychologists attribute the disorganized thinking of schizophrenia patients to a breakdown in the capacity for
selective attention
disturbed perceptions of people suffering from schizophrenia may take the form of
hallucinations, which usually are auditory
flat affect
zombie-like state of apparent apathy that some schizophrenia patients lapse into
catatonia
schizophrenia patients may remain motionless for hours and then become agitated
chronic schizophrenia
when schizophrenia develops slowly
chronic schizophrenia, recovery is
less likely
acute schizophrenia
when schizophrenia develops rapidly in reaction to particular life stresses
acute schizophrenia, recovery is
more likely
Chapter 14
Therapy
mental health therapies are classified as either
psychological therapies, or biomedical therapies
psychological therapy
commonly called psychotherapy
psychotherapy
appropriate for disorders that are learned
biomedical therapies
include the use of prescribed medications and medical procedures that act directly on the patient's nervous system
biopsychosocial therapists often blend several psychotherapy techniques
the eclectic approach
psychotherapy integration
attempts to combine methods into a single, coherent system
the goal of this psychoanalysis was to help the patient gain insight
Freud's psychoanalysis based on his personality theory
Freud assumed that many psychological problems originate in childhood impulses and conflicts that have been
repressed
Psychoanalysts attempt to bring
repressed feelings into conscious awareness
free association
Freud's technique in which a patient says whatever comes to mind is called
resistance
when a person omits shameful or embarrassing material in free association
insight is facilitated by the analysts interpretation of the meanings of such
omissions, of dreams, and of information revealed in therapy sessions
latent content
Freud referred to the hidden meaning of a dream as its
transference
when strong feelings, similar to those experienced in other important relationships, are developed toward the therapist
psychoanalysts interpretations are
hard to disprove
psychoanalysts therapy is
expensive
self-fulfillment
humanistic therapies attempt to help people meet their potential for this
humanistic therapy is focused on
following
on the present and the future
rather than the past
on the conscious
rather than the unconscious
on promoting growth and fulfillment
rather than curing illness
on helping clients take immediate responsibility for their feelings and actions
rather than on uncovering the obstacles to doing so
Client-centered therapy
based on Carl Rogers' theory,
client centered therapy, is non-directive therapy because
the therapist does not interpret the person's problems
Rogerian therapists strive to promote growth in their clients by exhibiting
genuineness, acceptance, and empathy
active listening
rogers' technique of restating and clarifying what a person is saying
unconditional positive regard and a nonjudgmental environment
patients are better able to accept themselves as they are and to feel valued and whole
active listening
paraphrase, invite clarification, reflect feelings
behavior therapy applies the principles of ______ to eliminate troubling behaviors
learning
instead of looking for the inner cause of unwanted behavior
behavior therapy applies learning principles to directly attack the unwanted behavior itself
classical conditioning
the basis of one cluster of behavior therapies
counter-conditioning
technique in which a new, incompatible response is substituted for a maladaptive one
counter-conditioning examples
following
systematic desensitization
the bunny fearing boy
aversive conditioning
the beer nausea thing
exposure therapies
most widely used techniques of behavior therapy
Joseph Wolpe
developed the technique of systematic desensitization
assumption of systematic desensitization
that you cannot be simultaneously anxious and relaxed
Step one in systematic desensitization
developing a hierarchy of anxiety-arousing stimuli
step two in systematic desensitization
training in progressive relaxation
step three in systematic desensitization
the person is trained to associate the relaxed state with the anxiety arousing stimuli
virtual reality exposure
for those who are unable to visually imagine an anxiety-arousing situation or are too afraid or embarrassed to do so
in aversive conditioning, the therapist attempts to substitute a negative response
for one that is currently positive to a harmful stimulus
in aversive conditioning, a person's unwanted behavior
becomes associated with unpleasant feelings
behavior modification
reinforcing desired behaviors and withholding reinforcement for undesired behaviors
operant conditioning is used by therapists who
influence behavior by controlling its consequences
token economy
desired behaviors are rewarded using a points system and operant conditioning
Criticisms of behavior modification
desired behavior may stop when the rewards stop, one person should not be allowed to control another
Pros of behavior modification
some clients request this therapy, control already exists
Advantages to group therapy
save therapists time and clients money, social context allows people to discover that others have similar problems, allows patients to try out new ways of behaving
family therapy
type of group interaction that focuses on the fact that we live and grow in relation to others
family therapy focuses on improving
communication
alternative therapy
today many forms of this are touted as effective treatments for a variety of complaints
very little evidence, aside from testimonials, based on
controlled research for alternative therapies
eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR)
a therapist triggers eye movements in patients while they imagine traumatic events
EMDR has proven somewhat effective as a treatment for
nonmilitary post-traumatic stress disorder
skeptics point to evidence that suggests
finger tapping is just as effective as eye movements
key to EMDR seems to be
in the person's reliving traumatic memories and in a placebo effect
wintertime form of depression called
seasonal affective disorder
seasonal affective disorder can benefit from
timed light-exposure therapy
Chapter 15
Social Psychology
social psychologists
psychologists who study how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
THINK
our attributions of a person's behavior
INFLUENCE
conformity and obedience, individual behavior in the presence of others
RELATE
prejudice, aggression, attraction, altruism
Heider's theory of how we explain others' behavior
attribution theory
dispositional attribution
we attribute behavior to an internal cause
situational attribution
we attribute behavior to an external cause
fundamental attribution error
when a person tends to underestimate the extent to which another person's actions are influenced by social situations
fundamental attribution error occurs because
the observer's attention is focused on the person
when explaining our own behavior, or that of someone we know well, fundamental attribution error is
weaker
when observers view the world from others' perspectives, attributions are
reversed
attitudes
feelings, often based on our beliefs, that predispose our responses
3 conditions under which our attitudes predict our actions
following
when other influences on the attitudes and actions are minimized
when we are not attempting to adjust our behavior to please others
when the attitude is specifically relevant to the behavior
when we are in familiar situations in which we don't have to stop and think about our attitudes
whence are especially aware of our attitudes
when the attitude pertains to a specific behavior, such as purchasing a product
our attitudes are strongly influenced by
our actions
foot-in-the-door phenomenon
the tendency for people who agree to a small request to comply later with a larger one
taking on a set of behaviors, or acting a certain way generally
changes people's attitudes
cognitive dissonance theory
thoughts and feelings change because people are motivated to justify actions that would otherwise seem hypocritical
cognitive dissonance theory was proposed by
Leon Festinger
dissonance theory predicts that people induced (without coercion) to behave contrary to their true attitudes will be motivated to
reduce the resulting dissonance by changing their attitudes
Vocabulary
following
Chapter 13
following
psychological disorder
deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional behavior patterns
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
a psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms- extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
medical model
the concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital.
DSM-IV
The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (fourth edition), a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders.
Anxiety Disorders
psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal.
panic disorder
an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, chocking, or other frightening sensations.
phobia
an anxiety disorder market by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation.
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions).
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
an anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for weeks or more after a traumatic experience
dissociative disorder
disorders i which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings.
dissociative identity disorder (DID)
a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Also called multiple personality disorder.
personality disorders
psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning.
antisocial personality disorder
a personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. May be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist.
mood disorder
psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes. See major depressive disorder, main, and bipolar disorder.
major depressive disorder
a mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or a medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities.
main
a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state.
bipolar disorder
a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania. (Formerly called manic-depressive disorder.)
schizophrenia
a group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions.
delusions
false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders.
Chapter 14
following
psychotherapy
treatment involving psychological techniques; consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties to achieve personal growth.
biomedical therapy
prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patine's nervous system.
eclectic approach
an approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client's problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy.
psychoanalysis
Sigmund Freud's therapeutic technique. Freud believed that the patient's free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences-and the therapist's interpretations of them- released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight.
resistance
in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material
interpretation
in psychoanalysis, the analyst's noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight.
transference
in psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent).
client-centered therapy
a humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients' growth. (Also called person-centered therapy.)
active listening
empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Rogers' client-centered therapy
behavior therapy
therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors.
counterconditioning
a behavior therapy procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors; based on classical conditioning. Includes exposure therapies and aversive conditioning.
exposure therapies
behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization, that treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actuality) to the things they fear and avoid.
systematic desensitization
a type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli.
virtual reality exposure therapy
an anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to simulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders, or public speaking.
aversive conditioning
a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol.)
token economy
an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats.
cognitive therapy
therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions.
cognitive-behavior therapy
a popular integrated therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior).
Family therapy
therapy that thetas the family as a system. View an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by or directed at other family members.
psychopharmacology
the study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior.
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient.
repetitive trans-cranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)
the application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity.
psycho-surgery
surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior
lobotomy
a now-rare psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. The procedure cut the nerves connecting the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain.
Chapter 15
following
social psychology
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.
attribution theory
suggests how we explain someone's behavior-by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition.
fundamental attribution error
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and overestimate the impact of personal disposition.
attitude
feelings, often based on our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events.
foot-in-the-door phenomenon
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request.
role
a set of explanations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave.
cognitive dissonance theory
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thought (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.
conformity
adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
normative social influence
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval.
informational social influence
influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality.
social facilitation
stronger responses on simple or well-leaned tasks in the presence of others.
social loafing
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable.
de-individuation
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
group polarization
the enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group.
group-think
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives.
prejudice
an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action.
stereotype
a generalized (sometimes accurate but overgeneralized) belief about a group of people.
discrimination
unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group or its members.
ingroup
"Us"-people whit whom one shares a common identity.
outgroup
"them"- those perceived as different or apart from one's ingroup.
ingroup bias
the tendency to favor one's own group.
scapegoat theory
the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame.
just-world phenomenon
the tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
aggression
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy.
frustration-aggression principle
the principle that frustration-the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal-creates anger, which can generate aggression.
mere exposure effect
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them.
passionate love
an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship.
companionate love
the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined.
equity
a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it.
self-disclosure
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others.
altruism
unselfish regard for the welfare of others.
bystander effect
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.
conflict
a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas.
superordinate goals
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation.
GRIT
Graduated and REciprocated INitiatives in Tension-Reduction-a strategy designed to decrease international tensions.