28 terms

IB Geography Hazards and Disasters

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Terms in this set (...)

Areal Extent
The size of an area covered by a hazard (small in avalanche chute, to continental for drought).
Disaster
The occurrence of a hazard event, which causes widespread disruption to a community or region, where the community affected is unable to deal with the consequences adequately without outside help/aid.
Duration
The length of time a hazard event exists for (seconds - earthquake to years - drought)
Frequency
How often a hazard event of a particular size occurs (smaller events occur more often than larger ones).
Hazard
threat that has the potential to cause loss of life, injury and/or property damage, socio-economic disruption and environmental degradation.
Hazard event
The occurrence of a hazard and its consequent effects on demographic, socio-economic and environmental conditions.
Magnitude
The size of an event, in terms of scales/ranking, i.e. floodwater height in meters or an earthquakes reading on the richter scale.
Regularity/Temporal spacing
The predictability of a hazard events occurrence based on historical data (earthquakes are random, whilst tropical cyclones are seasonal).
Risk
The probability of a hazard causing harmful consequences to a community (loss of life, injury and/or property damage).
Spatial concentration/dispersion
The distribution of hazards over space, i.e. concentrated along tectonic plate boundaries, coastlines, valleys etc...
Speed of onset
The time difference between the start of a hazard event and its peak.
Vulnerability
The conditions that increase the susceptibility of a community to a hazard or impacts of a hazard event.
Land-Use Planning
Land-use Planning can prevent the use of land that is susceptible to a hazard through risk assessments. For example, floodplains, land close to fault lines, and certain types of rock material are land areas avoided when planning to construct a structure.
Predictability
The extent to which an accurate forecast can be made on a hazard event.
Reconstruction
The act of restoring to an original state. In times of a disaster, an area will have to reconstruct to return to their original condition. Hopefully with improvements created after re-assessing their situation after the hazard
Rehabilitation
Rehabilitation occurs when an area rebuilds its infrastructure. This could include the rebuilding of roads to allow for transportation, the rebuilding of hospitals to provide aid, or even the rebuilding of peoples houses to provide a place to have shelter
Rescue
To save someone from a dangerous or distressing situation.
Risk Management
The identification, assessment, and prioritization of risks followed by coordinated and economical application of resources to minimize, monitor, and control the probability or impact of unfortunate events.
Risk Perception
The way that a person or population interprets the potential harmful consequences that is brought upon by a hazard event.
Spreading the risk
A method of displacing vulnerability to hazards across a larger population through the use of insurance and aid.
Vulnerable Populations
Populations that have placed themselves in areas that have the geographic conditions that increase the susceptibility of a community to a hazard or to the impacts of hazard event. This could include living right beside a volcano, or it could be having a high population of women, etc.
Richter Scale
The Richter Scale is a scale used to measure the intensity of an earthquake based on how much energy was released. The magnitude of the earthquake is determined from the logarithm of the largest recorded amplitude by the seismographs.
Adaptation
The process of adapting to something (such as environmental conditions), changing devices, mechanisms, or lifestyles to become suitable to a situation. People see that they can prepare for the hazard, and use measures to predict, prevent, and protect the people from it.
Acceptance
The viewpoint in which the risks that the hazard(s) present are lesser than the advantages. Examples include costs vs. benefits, tourism, energy generation, agriculture, and mineral extraction.
Fatalism
An attitude of resignation in the face of some future event or events which are thought to be inevitable—action is taken in terms of safety, but often there are no other alternatives due to economic reasons
Modify the Hazard
Changes made to reduce the impact a hazard will have. Sea walls for tsunamis, earthquake resistant buildings, fire protection, etc.
Modifiy the Vunerablility (Modify the potential loss)
Changes made to help vulnerable populations. Warning systems, disaster drills, education, and land-use changes.
Saffir-Simpson Scale
Classifies hurricanes according to air pressure int he center, wind speed and property damage potential on a scale ranging from Category 1 to category 5.