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Review for Chapter 3
Terms in this set (21)
Explain the law of conservation of mass in terms of Dalton's atomic theory.
Mass cannot be created or destroyed in ordinary chemical and physical change.
Explain the law of definite proportions in terms of Dalton's atomic theory.
A chemical compound always contains the same elements in exactly the same proportions by weight or mass.
Explain the law of multiple proportions in terms of Dalton's atomic theory.
When two elements combine to form two or more compounds, the mass of one element that combines with a given mass of the others is in the ratio of small whole numbers
According to the law of conservation of mass, if element A has an atomic mass of 2 mass units and element B has an atomic mass of 3 mass units, what mass would be expected for compound AB? for compound A₂B₃?
AB = 5, A₂B₃ = 13
Summarize Rutherford's model of the atom, and explain how he developed this model based on the results of his famous gold-foil experiment.
The atoms have a very dense part in the middle that is positively charged. This is called the nucleus and is made up of protons and neutrons. Rutherford shot alpha particles at a sheet of gold and expected them to pass right through it. They ended up scattering in all directions. This led to him believing that there must be a very dense positively charged area in the atom. (drawing from class)
What number uniquely identifies an element?
What are isotopes?
An atom that has the same number of protons as other atoms of the same element but that has a different number of neutrons
How are isotopes of a particular element alike and different?
They have the same number of protons, but they have a different number of neutrons.
Copy and complete the following table concerning the three isotopes of silicon, Si.
ISOTOPES - # OF p⁺ - # OF e⁻ - # OF n°
# OF p⁺ - # OF e⁻ - # OF n°
14 - 14 - 14
14 - 14 - 15
14 - 14 - 16
What is the atomic number of an element?
number of protons of each atom
What is the mass number of an isotope?
number of protons and neutrons
In the nuclear symbol for deuterium,²₁H, identify the atomic number and the mass number.
atomic number - 1, mass - 2
What is a nuclide?
an atom identified by the number of protons and neutrons in its nucleus
Use the periodic table and the info that follows to write the hyphen notation for each isotope described.
a. atomic number = 2, mass number = 4
b. atomic number = 8, mass number = 16
c. atomic number = 19, mass number = 39
What nuclide is used as the standard in the relative scale for atomic masses? What is its assigned atomic mass?
Carbon-12, 12 amu/u
What is the atomic mass of an atom if its mass is approximately equal tot he following?
a. 1/3 that of carbon-12
b. 4.5 times as much as carbon-12
a. 4 u
b. 12 u
What is the definition of a mole?
The SI base unit used to measure the amount of substance whose number of particles is the same as the number of atoms of carbon in exactly 12g of carbon-12.
What is the abbreviation of mole?
How many particles are in one mole?
6.02 x 10²³
What name is given to the number of particles in a mole?
What is the molar mass of an element?
weight of one mole of a substance
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