62 terms

APES Friedland Chapter 2

anything that occupies space and has mass
a measurement of the amount of matter an object contains
the smallest particle than can contain the chemical properties of an element
a substance composed of atoms that cannot be broken down into smaller, simpler components
periodic table
a chart of all chemical elements currently known, organized by their properties
a particle that contains more than one atom
a molecule containing more than one element
atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus of a particular atom
mass number
a measurement of the total number of protons and neutrons in an element
atoms of the same element with different number of neutrons
radioactive decay
the spontaneous release of material from the nucleus of radioactive isotopes
the time it takes for one-half of an original radioactive parent atom to decay
covalent bond
the bond formed when elements share electrons
ionic bond
a chemical bond between two oppositely charged ions
hydrogen bond
a weak chemical bond that forms when hydrogen atoms that are covalently bonded to one atom are attracted to another atom or another molecule
polar molecule
a molecule in which one side is more positive and the other side is more negative
the ability to do work or transfer heat
electromagnetic radiation
a form of energy emitted by the sun that includes but is not limited to, visible light, ultraviolet light, and infrared energy
a massless packet of energy that carries electromagnetic radiation at the speed of light
the amount of energy used when a one-watt electrical device is turned on for one second
potential energy
stored energy that has not been released
kinetic energy
the energy of motion
chemical energy
potential energy that is stored in chemical bonds
the measure of the average kinetic energy of a substance
first law of thermodynamics
a physical law which states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed but can change from one form to another
second law of thermodynamics
a physical law stating that when energy is transformed, the quantity of energy remains the same, but its ability to do work is diminished
energy efficiency
the ratio of the amount of work done to the total amount of energy introduced to the system
energy quality
the ease with which an energy source can be used for work
disorder/randomness in a system
open system
a system in which exchanges of matter or energy occur across system boundaries.
closed system
exchange of matter or energy does not occur across system boundaries. Ex: Matter on Earth continuously recycles
a loss from a system
an addition to a system
system analysis
looks at inputs, outputs, and changes in a system under various conditions
steady state
a state in which inputs equal outputs, so that the system is not changing over time
adjustment to input or output caused by change
negative feedback loops
a feedback loop in which a system responds to a change by returning to its original state, or by decreasing the rate at which the change is occurring
positive feedback loops
a feedback loop in which change in a system is amplified
the force that results from gravity acting on mass
surface tension
cohesion of water molecules creates stretchy surface layer
capillary action
cohesion and adhesion of water molecules pulls them along a surface or up a tube
conservation of matter
matter cannot be created or destroyed, only changed from one form to another
organic compound
a compound that contains carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen bonds
inorganic molecules
a compound that does not contain the element carbon or contains carbon bound to elements other than hydroget
rate at which work is done
kinetic energy
the energy of motion
potential energy
stored energy that has not been released
energy efficiency
the ratio of the amount of energy expended in the four you want to the total amount of energy that is included in the system
open System
exchange of matter or energy occur across system boundaries
natural law
phenomenon which has been rigorously tested and to which there are no known exceptions
carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids
a substance that contributes hydrogen ions to a solution
a substance that contributes hydroxide ions to a solution
the number that indicates the relative strength of acids and bases in a substance
chemical reaction
a reaction that occurs when atoms separate from molecules or recombine with other molecules
a compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms
a critical component of living organisms made up of a long chain of nitrogen-containing organic molecules known as amino acids
nucleic acid
organic compounds found in all living cells
a nucleic acid, the genetic material that contains the code for reproducing the components of the next generation, and which organisms pass on to their offspring
a nucleic acid that translates the code stored in DNA, which makes possible the synthesis of proteins
a smaller organic biological molecule that does not mix with water
a highly organized living entity that consists of four types of macromolecules and other substances in a water solution, surrounded by a membrane

Flickr Creative Commons Images

Some images used in this set are licensed under the Creative Commons through Flickr.com.
Click to see the original works with their full license.