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Glacial and Periglacial Processes and Landforms

Approximately what percentage of the world's freshwater is frozen?


The bulk of ice on Earth is in Greenland and Antarctica.


A general term for a mass of perennial ice, resting on land or floating shelf-like in the sea adjacent to land is _______


Firn has a higher density than glacial ice.


Glacial ice can form during the duration of a single winter season i most glacial areas


Alpine glaciers include all of the following except

an ice cap

A glacier that is confined in a bowl-shaped recess is called a

cirque glacier

A continuous mass of ice covering a large landmass is known as

continental glacier

The type of glacier that dominates Greenland and Antarctica is

ice sheet

in terms of area extent, which of the following sequences is in order from most to least area covered?

ice sheet, ice cap, ice field

Why, specifically, is glacial ice analogous to a metamorphic rock?

It forms as a result of recyrstallization caused by pressure.

Snow that has a compact, granular structure is known as


The transformation of snow into glacial ice in Antarctica takes ________ than in midlatitude alpine glacier's because

longer; less snow falls per year in polar regions and longer;less melting and refreezing occurs in Antarctica

The opposite of the accumulation zone in a glacier is the

ablation zone

The zone where positive gains end and losses begin in the glacial mass balance is called

an equilibrium l ine

Which of the following is true of glacial movement?

The internal flow just below the surface is greater than the basal flow

The presence of melt water at the bottom of glacier can increase its rate of movement.


Which of the following is incorrectly matched?

All of these are correctly matched:
-crevasses--- vertical cracks from friction tension
-ice regelation---- the melting and refreezing of basal ice
-glacial ice---- a metamorphic version of snow and firn

Because the upper regions of a glacier flow ______ than the base of the glacier, the upper part of the glacier tends to be ______.

faster; stretched

Crevasses form in the basal layer of a glacier


Basal slip is facilitated by

-presence of melt water
-saturated sediments

All of the following represent forms of glacial erosion except


Glacial polish results from


Which of the following are erosional landforms created by alpine glaciations?

cols and horns

A tarn is a lake in a


Unlike a stream-cut valley that assumes a characteristic ______- shape, a glacially-carved valley evidences a characteristic ______-shape

V; U

The material in a glacial moraine is


When two valley glaciers join together, they form a ___ at the point at which they merge.

medial moraine

Which of the following is a depositional landform created by glaciations?

Stratified drift

The general term for all glacial deposits is

glacial drift

Unsorted unstratified glacial deposits )not landforms) care called


The material deposited behind a terminal moraine forms a(n) _______, whereas that deposits in front of the terminal moraine forms a(n) ______

Till plain; outwash plain

Kettle holes are formed by

ice that melts after having been buried by glacial sediments

Erractics are

rocks that are not native to an area

Drumlins are formed in _______, and their tapered ends point _______

till plains; downstream

The term periglacial refers to

cold-climate processes along the margins of glaciers

Permanently frozen subsurface ground is called


Areas of permafrost, ground ice, and frost action are in which climate types?

subarctic and tundra

Permafrost develops where soil and rock temperatures are below freezing for at least two years.


The active layer is usually thinner toward the pole and thicker at lower latitude


Unfrozen ground in a region of discontinuous permafrost is known as


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