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51 terms

Skeletal, Muscular, Endocrine, and Integumentary System Vocabulary

This is a very extensive flashcard set on human anatomy.
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Tissue
a cooperating unit of many similar cells that perform a specific function
Organ
consists of several tissues that together perform a specific task
Organ System
consists of multiple organs that together perform a vital body function
Integumentary System
covers the body and protects it from injury, infection, excessive heat or cold, and drying out; includes skin, hair, nails
Skeletal System
provides body support, protects certain organs such as the brain and lungs, and works with the muscular system in body movements; includes the ribs, clavicle, humerus, femur, etc.
Muscular System
enables body movement and facial expressions essential to human communication; includes heart
Nervous System
coordinates body's activities by detecting stimuli and directing the body's responses; includes brain, spinal cord, etc.
Circulatory System
delivers oxygen and nutrients to body cells and transports waste products to excretory organs; includes heart, arteries, etc.
Respiratory System
Exchanges gas with the environment; includes lungs, etc.
Digestive System
Ingests food, breaks it down into smaller chemical units for use by the body, and eliminates undigested material, includes colon, gallbladder, etc.
Endocrine System
secretes hormones that affect the functions of target cells, and thereby regulates the activities of the other organ systems; includes pituitary gland, etc.
Reproductive System
produces gametes; the female system also provides the organs needed to support a developing embryo; includes ovaries and testes
Excretory System
removes waste products from the body and regulates the chemical makeup of blood; includes kidney, urethra, anus
Lymphatic System
supports function of the circulatory system by returning fluid to blood vessels near the heart; also functions as part of the immune system
Immune System
defends body against infections and cancer cells; includes white blood cells, red blood cells, etc.
Epithelial Tissue
sheets of closely packed cells that cover the entire surface of your body and form the lining of your internal organs
Connective Tissue
main function is to hold together and support other tissues, and to cushion, insulate, and connect organs
Nervous Tissue
communication tissue; forms an extensive network of neurons, axons, and dendrites all over the body
Skeletal Muscle
a voluntary muscle; you can control it
Cardiac Muscle
involuntary muscle that cause your heart to pump blood
Smooth Muscle
involuntary muscles that contain smooth muscle tissue and are found in most of your other organs
Homeostasis
internal stability maintained by your body
Hormones
singal molecules released by glands
Interstitial Fluid
aqueous solution that fills the gaps between cells in a tissue
Epidermis
outermost layer of the skin
Dermis
skin layer that lies beneath and supports the epidermis; contains many materials
Hypodermis
skin layer below the dermis; includes fat-storing cells and blood vessels
Melanin
pigmented protein that gives skin its color
Keratin
protein your hair is made of
Hair Follicle
pocket of cells that deposit keratin, forming hair
Vertebra
small bones of the backbone, which protects the spinal cord
Cartilage
type of connective tissue that is softer than bone
Bone Matrix
outer "layer" of bone, surrounds the bone cells; made of the protein collagen and a hard mineral made of calcium and phosphate
Collagen
protein inside bone matrix; keeps bone flexible and non-brittle
Yellow Bone Marrow
in the center of a long bone; consists of stored fat and serves as an energy reserve for the body
Red Bone Marrow
in the bone; produces cells that develop into your body's blood cells
Joint
area where one bone meets another
Immovable Joints
connected bones (joints) that are positioned so they can't move; can protect internal organs better than any other type of joint
Movable Joints
connected bones (joints) that are positioned to allow you movement
Ligament
strong, fibrous connective tissue that holds the bones in a movable joint together
Pivot Joint
type of movable joint that allows a bone to pivot; like a skull moving from side to side on a vertabrae
Ball-and-Socket Joint
type of movable joint that allows a bone to rotate and move back-and-forth and side-to-side; like a shoulder
Gliding Joint
type of movable joint that allow small bones to slide gently over one another; like a wrist
Hinge Joint
type of movable joint that allow bones movement in a back-and-forth motion; like a knee
Tendon
a dense connective tissue that attaches a muscle to a bone
Muscle Fiber
a single long cylindrical muscle cell that contains many nuclei
Myofibril
a smaller unit of a muscle fiber; made of repeating units called sarcomeres; has alternating dark and light bands
Sarcomere
a muscle fiber's unit that contracts; composed of two kinds of filaments
Actin
thin filament of a sarcomere; have a twisted, ropelike structure
Myosin
thick filament of a sarcomere; have bump-like projections called myosin heads
Myosin Head Function
1) the myosin heads bind to the thin filament - (actin) 2) myosin heads bend, pulling the actin filament toward the center of the sarcomere - 3) then ATP binds to each myosin head, releasing it from the actin filament - 4) myosin head is free to attach to another actin filament, further contracting the particular sarcomere