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HIST Test 3
Terms in this set (57)
Identify the participants, and discuss the issues that resulted in a French-British conflict in the Ohio Country beginning in the 1740s.
French Traders, Aggressive Pennsylvania Traders, a group of enterprising Virginians, and the Ohio Company
French traders had alliance with Indian tribes, the Pennsylvania traders began to infringe upon their territory, Ohio company advanced on the same land.
Discuss the goal(s) of the Albany Conference.
- To prevent conflict in the Ohio Country from leading to a larger war.
- Strengthen old partnership with Mohawks of New York Iroquois Confederacy
- To repair relations and secure the Indian's help or neutrality against the French threat
- Albany plan for a unified but limited government to exercise sole authority over questions of war, peace, and trade with the Indians.
- The Albany plan was not approved.
Explain how the 1763 Treaty of Paris changed the political map of North America.
- Britian gained control of Canada
- British and American confirmed title to Eastern half of North America
- French territory west of Mississippi River included New Orleans was transferred to Spain
- Cuba was returned to Spain
- Martinique and Guadalupe returned to France
Explain how the Proclamation of 1763 provoked American anger.
- Forbid colonists to settle west of Appalachian Mountains to protect Indian territory
- American settlers, land speculators, and Ohio company already staked claims to huge tracts of these western lands
Explain what colonists meant when they distinguished between Parliament's authority to levy "internal" and "external" taxes.
Internal - Stamp Act or property tax could only be self-imposed
External - taxes are imposed to regulate trade
Name the political principle upheld by the Declaratory Act.
- The Stamp Act was repealed and the Declaratory Act took its place.
- The Declaratory Act asserted Parliament's right to legislate for the colonies "in all cases whatsoever". Perhaps the stamp tax had been unreasonable, but the power to tax was stoutly upheld.
Define "non-consumption agreements" and what they hoped to accomplish.
- called for a boycott of all British-made goods. The idea was to encourage home manufacture and to hurt trade, causing London merchants to pressure Parliament for repeal of the duties
Compare the actions of the "Sons of Liberty" with the "Daughters of Liberty" during protests against British policies.
- Sons of Liberty: took to the streets in protest, burned effigies, threatened hated officials, and celebrated anniversaries of their successes with raucous drinking in taverns. They were prized by masculine self-assertion.
- Daughters of Liberty: manifested their patriotism quietly, in ways marked by piety, industry,and charity. They boycotted British-made goods (ex:abstaining from drinking imported tea, spinned/made their own clothes). Were selfless.
Define "committee of correspondence" and explain the significance of these committees.
- A committee set up to receive, discuss, distribute, and act on political news
- A rapid communications network to link the colonies
- Committees of correspondence were set up to provide local forums for debate. They politicized ordinary towns-people, sparking a revolutionary language of rights and constitutional duties. They also bypassed the official flow of power and information through the colony's royal government.
Describe Boston colonists' reaction to the Tea Act and Britain's subsequent response.
- Colonists still smuggled in larger amounts of tea from the Dutch
- Parliament lowered taxes to motivate Americans to obey the laws.
Identify the goals and outcomes of the First Continental Congress of 1774.
- Sought to articulate their liberties as British subjects and powers Parliament held over them
- Debated responses to the Coercive Acts
- Produced a declaration of Rights - four laws meant to punish Massachusetts for destroying the tea.. Some wanted a total ban on trade with Britain to force repeal, while others, especially southerners dependent on tobacco and rice exports, opposed halting eager for a ringing denunciation of all parliamentary control.
Show where the first shots of what became the American Revolutionary War were fired.
- Lexington Massachusetts, five miles east of Concord
Name the young domestic slave from Boston who wrote so eloquently of the hypocrisy of Africans enslaved in a liberty-loving America.
- Phillis Wheatley
Identify the objectives and the results of the Second Continental Congress.
- To raise and supply an army
- Explore reconciliation with Britain - reconciliation failed as the war progressed and they thought about declaring independence.
Name the delegate to the Second Continental Congress who was feared to be a British spy.
- Benjamin Franklin - He was fresh off the boat from a 11 year residence in London, and some thought he was a British spy.
Explain why George Washington was chosen to command the Continental Army.
- His leadership helped bind the southern colonies more closely to the rebellion
- To send a clear message that there was widespread commitment to war beyond New England
Describe the obstacles faced by George Washington as he took charge of the Continental Army.
- the Continental Army was poorly trained and under supplied. It was a huge amount of work to supply Continental Army soldiers with what they needed.
- The army faced many problems with organization, money, and transportation.
- Enthusiastic but undisciplined troops
- Sanitation issues
Discuss Thomas Paine's role in American independence.
- Author of Common Sense that laid out a lively and compelling case for complete independence
- Elaborated on absurdities of British Monarchy
- Created a pamphlet that sold 150,000 copies that convinced many American colonists that the time had finally come to break away from British rule.
Explain why printed copies of the Declaration of Independence did not include the signers' names.
- They committed treason which is punishable by death
Define "militia" and discuss the traditional roles played by militias in the colonies.
- All able bodied men over age 16 a military force that is raised from the civil population to supplement a regular army in an emergency.
- Suited for local and limited engagement, responding to conflict with Indians or slave rebellions
Enumerate the number of African American men who served the American cause in the Revolutionary War.
- 5,000 African American men served in the Revolutionary War.
Discuss the American and the British strategies for winning the War.
- American was to repulse and defeat an invading army
- British was to capture and occupy every major port city, restore old government and not destroy an enemy country, they assumed many Americans remained loyal to the kind and would come to the military aid
- The British strategy was to use a divide and conquer approach, first New York because it had the greatest number of loyal subjects, and offered a geographic advantage as well.
Analyze how local "committees" were used to comply allegiance to the American cause.
- Committees of Correspondence, public safety - enforced boycotts, picked army draftees, policed suspected traitors, invaded homes to search for contraband goods (British tea or textiles)
Define and enumerate "loyalists".
- 1/5 of American Population
- They believed that social stability depended on a government anchored by monarchy and aristocracy
- A person who is remains loyal to the established ruler or government, especially in face of revolt. Loyalists of the elite classes often had strong cultural an economic tires to England; they thought that social stability depended on a government anchored by monarchy and aristocracy, and they feared democratic tyranny.
Explain why Joseph Brant and other Native American leaders pledged Indian support for the British.
- Pledged support in exchange for protection from encroaching settlers
- By 1779, support shifted to the British in the face of repeated betrayals by American settlers and soldiers.
Explain what some loyalists meant when they feared the "democratic tyranny" of an American victory.
- Patriots were violent, self-interested men who wanted power for themselves.
- They tarred and feathered, confiscated property, deported and terrorized the loyalists and declared them traitors
Summarize the financial status of the colonies during the war years.
- Paper money was worthless
- Borrowing from wealthy in exchange for certificates of debt
- Rising prices of goods lead to fixed prices of goods
- Black market rose for imports tea sugar, textiles, and wines
Explain the significance of the battle at Saratoga in 1777 as a turning point in the Revolutionary War.
- Continental Army won and British government proposed a negotiated settlement to end the war, not including independence, American refused.
- The capture of an entire British army secured the northern American states from further attack via Canada and prevented New England from being isolated. This is also what led the French into alliance with the US, military and financially.
Name the American traitor whose actions ultimately contributed to reviving Americans' commitment to victory.
- Benedict Arnold
Discuss the impact on Native Americans of the Treaty of Paris.
- The treaty did not include Indians, hence they were still at war with Americans and abandoned by retreating British
Explain how the Articles of Confederation provided for a central ("confederation") government with very little authority.
- No power of taxation
- No executive branch
- The weaknesses of the document were that nine of the thirteen states were needed to ratify a bill before it became law, and all states needed to accept an amendment before it became part of the Articles.
- There was little or no enforcement of laws the President made because he was only a figurehead.
- There was no foreign policy, and states printed their own currency.
- there was no Federal Army, no judicial system, and a lack of national compulsive power over states.
Discuss what early Americans meant by "republicanism" as they wrote new state constitutions.
- Government that promoted peoples welfare
- Autonomous leaders
- Direct democracy
- For some it was a way of thinking who the leaders should be. For others it suggested direct democracy, for all, it meant a government that promoted the peoples welfare.
Define "bill of rights" and identify some of the specific rights guaranteed in the state constitutions.
- A list of individual liberties that government could not abridge
- All men created equally free and independent
- Inherent rights
- Freedom of speech
- Freedom of the press
- Trial by jury
Define "suffrage," and "disfranchise" and identify the basic requirement for political participation in every state of the new Republic by the 1780s.
- Suffrage = The right to vote
- Disfranchise = denial of the right to vote (suffrage) to a group or individual through legal or other means.
Compare the actions taken towards slavery in the north and in the south during the 1770s and 1780s.
- North enacted gradual emancipation and other various things
- South freedom of slaves was unthinkable
Identify the main problems faced by the Confederation government in the early 1780s.
- Paying down the large war debt
- making formal peace with the Indians
- Dealing with western settlement
- Lacked the power to enforce tax requisitions
Explain how the Northwest Ordinance provided for the orderly expansion of the U.S.
- 3 stage process by which settled territories would advance to statehood
- Congress appointed officials to adopt legal code
- When male population of legal voting age and landowner status reached 5000, they could elect its own legislature
- When voting population reached 60,000 they could write a state constitution
Explain the impact of Shay's Rebellion on the Confederation government (the government that operated under the Articles of Confederation).
- It caused the leaders throughout the country to worry about the confederations ability to handle civil disorder
Discuss the differences between the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan.
- Virginia Plan = 3 branch government, representation to population which left out small states, right to veto legislation, advocated two legislative houses of which membership would be based on population.
- New Jersey Plan = Each state had one vote, plural presidency (3 men), congress had right to tax, regulate trade, and use force on unruly state governments, advocated one legislative house, membership in which would be equal for all states
Describe how the U.S. Constitution addressed slavery.
- 3/5 clause = All free persons plus 3/5 of all other persons would count as base for apportionment of representatives
- All other persons = slaves
Name the groups who supported, and those who opposed ratification of the Constitution.
- Federalists supported ratification of the constitution and attempted to convince the States to ratify the document.
- Anti Federalists did not support ratification of the Constitution. They complained that the new system threatened liberties, and failed to protect individual rights.
Identify the most widespread objection to the Constitution by those who opposed its ratification.
- It would destroy the power of the states-
Explain how New Yorkers were urged to ratify the U.S. Constitution.
- Consideration of a bill of rights
- The Federalist Papers were a series of eighty-five essays urging the citizens of New York to ratify the new United States Constitution. The Federalist Papers are considered one of the most important sources for interpreting and understanding the original intent of the Constitution.
List the issues and the ideologies that prompted intense and passionate disagreements among political leaders of the 1790s.
- Economic and foreign policy
- Taxation and public debt
- New treaty with Britian
- Haiti Rebellion
- Near war with France
Name the first departments of government created by Congress, and the men appointed to lead them.
- Department of War - General Henry Knox
- Department of Treasury - Alexander Hamilton
- Department of State - Thomas Jefferson
Explain why formal education for women became a priority in the new republic.
- Education would produce better mothers who in turn produce better citizens
- Republican Motherhood
List the three areas in which the U.S. experienced significant growth in the 1790s.
Identify the topics of the three major reports Hamilton presented to Congress.
- Report on Public Credit
- Bank of the United States
- Report on Manufacturers
Explain how Hamilton's plan for debt "assumption" increased the power of the federal government over the states.
- During the war, states obtained supplies by issuing IOU's to farmers, merchants, and money lenders. Some states such as Virginia and NewYork had paid off these debts
entirely. Others, such as Massachusetts had partially paid them off through heavy taxation of the people. About half of the states had made little headway.
- Hamilton called for the federal government to assume these states debts and combine them with the federal debt in effect consolidating federal power over the states
Discuss the compromise between Hamilton and Madison that resolved conflict over the "assumption" plan.
- Hamilton secured the reluctant Madison's promise to restrain his opposition.
- Hamilton pledged to back efforts to locate the nations new capital city in the south along the Potomac River
Discuss the opposition to a national bank, as offered by Madison and Jefferson.
- Madison concerned that few rich bankers may have influence over economy
- Constitution did not permit congress to charter banks
Define "tariff" and explain why Hamilton favored tariffs.
- A Tariff is a tax on imported goods
- He felt that it would offer new employment opportunities to children and unmarried women
- Encourage production of American made goods
Show how the Whiskey Rebellion tested the federal government's power to maintain civil order.
- instead of dismissing the law they sent military force to the sight of the rebellion letting them know that they would not back down and the law must be obeyed.
List the terms of the Treaty of New York.
- Creek tribal lands were guaranteed, with boundary protection
- Assured annual payments to Creeks
- Creeks promised US to be the only trade partner
Show the results of the U.S.'s attempts to resolve several long-standing problems with England in the 1790s.
- Jay Treaty Failed to address captured cargo or lost property in slaves
- 18 months for British to withdraw from frontier forts
- Repayment with interest of the debts that some Americans planters still owed to British firms from Revolutionary War
- Boundary disputes with Canada and damage and loss of shipowners discussed at later time
Discuss the positions of the two rival political factions that developed in response to economic and foreign policy debates in the 1790s.
- Federalists = Supported Britian in foreign policy and commercial interest at home
- Republicans = Rooted for liberty in France and worried about monarchical Federalists at home
Analyze the stated and the intended purposes of the Alien and Sedition Acts.
Sedition Act = Made it illegal to conspire and revolt and criminalized speech or words that defamed the president or congress = To muffle the opposition
Alien Act = Extended waiting period from 5 to 14 years to achieve citizenship and required all aliens to register with the feds. Empowered the president, in time of war, to deport or imprison without trial, any foreigner suspected of being a danger to the US = To harass French immigrants here and discourage others from coming
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