Human Anatomy & Physiology: MyLab & Mastering AandP: Ch 03 HW
Terms in this set (63)
Which of the following is the main component of the cell membrane?
Which of the following is a characteristic of the cell membrane?
Which of the following is not a major function of proteins in the cell membrane?
forming the entire glycocalyx
What part of a cell membrane is usually in contact with the interstitial fluid?
phosphate heads of phospholipids
Which of the following best explains diffusion?
movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
Which of the following is most likely to move through the cell membrane by facilitated diffusion?
What is the basic difference between simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion across a cell membrane?
In facilitated diffusion, molecules only move with the aid of a protein in the membrane.
Which of the following is least likely to increase the rate of diffusion?
small concentration gradient
Which of the following is not required for osmosis to occur?
Which of the following solutions contains the most solute?
In general, to maintain homeostasis the relationship between our intracellular and extracellular fluids should be which of the following?
isotonic to each other
If a person is severely dehydrated, their extracellular fluids will become hypertonic to the intracellular fluid. What do you predict will happen to the person's cells?
The cells will lose water and shrink.
What is a membrane potential?
a voltage or electrical charge across the plasma membrane
Drinking alcohol makes the blood hypertonic. Which option best describes the consequences of this hypertonic blood?
Hypertonic blood draws water out of the interstitial fluid, which makes the interstitial fluid hypertonic. This, in turn, draws water out of the cells.
Which of the following statements is NOT one of the four major concepts of the cell theory?
The function of a cell dictates the structure and organelles of the cells.
Which of the following is NOT one of the three major components of a typical eukaryotic cell?
Which of the following acts as the digestive system of the cell, breaking down materials?
Where in a typical eukaryotic cell would you expect to find genes?
in the DNA within the cell's nucleus
Which of the following statements about cells is FALSE?
Cells join together to form organelles, which then form our organs and organ systems.
Which of the following is a component of the plasma membrane that creates a chemical barrier between the inside and the outside of the cell?
Which of the following describes the plasma membrane?
the phospholipid bilayer surrounding the cell
If a human cell were to increase the amount of cholesterol embedded within its plasma membrane which of the following would most likely happen?
The plasma membrane would become more stable, less fluid and less permeable.
Which of the following would NOT diffuse through the plasma membrane by means of simple diffusion?
Ions are transported across membranes using __________, which requires __________.
channel-mediated facilitated diffusion; kinetic energy
Assume that Na+ is being transported across a membrane via facilitated diffusion. Which of the following conditions would allow for the most transport of Na+ across that membrane?
a gradient of more than 50% difference between sides for the Na+ and Na+ diffusing toward Cl−
Your patient has the flu and reports 5 to 6 loose stools a day. He has experienced an isotonic fluid volume loss. What does "isotonic fluid loss" mean?
Water and electrolytes are lost in equal proportions.
In a patient with severely burned skin, the damaged cells that have lost fluid cannot be properly rehydrated because_________.
the absence of selective permeability allows water molecules that enter these damaged cells to also leave the cytoplasm
A red blood cell placed in pure water would ________.
swell and burst
Which of the following statements is correct regarding net diffusion?
The greater the concentration gradient, the faster the rate.
If cells are placed in a hypertonic solution containing a solute to which the membrane is impermeable, what could happen?
The cells will lose water and shrink.
Passive membrane transport processes include ________.
movement of a substance down its concentration gradient
Which of the following will NOT speed up the net rate of diffusion for glucose into a cell?
Decreasing the number of phospholipids in the plasma membrane
The lungs deliver a regular supply of oxygen to the blood, which is in turn circulated to most all the cells of the body. At the same time oxygen is consumed during aerobic cellular respiration within these cells. This implies that ________.
oxygen will passively diffuse into the cells
The movement of water across the plasma membrane can be described by all of the following EXCEPT ________.
carrier-mediated facilitated diffusion.
You observe a small, nonpolar molecule near a membrane. How would this molecule likely transport across the membrane?
Osmosis is the passive movement of water but it follows almost completely opposite laws of physics when compared to the diffusion of ions or other small particles
A primary active transport process is one in which __________.
molecules move through transport proteins that have been activated by ATP
Some transport processes use transport proteins in the plasma membrane, but do not require ATP. This type of transport is known as _____.
The majority of water molecules moving across plasma membranes by osmosis do so via a process that is most similar to ____.
The sodium-potassium pump uses ATP to move sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This statement describes _____.
primary active transport
A vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane and releases its contents to the extracellular fluid. This statement describes _____.
Why is it necessary for glucose to be pumped into the cell rather than diffusing in?
Glucose may have to be moved against a concentration gradient.
Channel-mediated diffusion is a form of active transport.
Which of the following is a difference between primary and secondary active transport?
In primary active transport, the transport protein gets phosphorylated; in secondary active transport, the transport protein is not phosphorylated.
Which transport process is the main mechanism for the movement of most macromolecules by body cells?
Some hormones enter cells via ________.
If active transport establishes a concentration gradient with the use of ATP, then the concentration gradient can be looked at as ________.
potential energy that can be harnessed when molecules passively diffuse down the concentration gradient
Which of the following would not be restricted (limited) by low levels of ATP?
A cell engulfing a relatively large particle will likely utilize ________.
A type of transport protein found in the plasma membrane of cells lining the inside of the intestine allows sodium ions to diffuse down their concentration gradient. The ions move through the transport protein, and into the cell. These transport proteins will use the kinetic energy of the diffusing sodium ions to bring glucose into the cells as well. This transport protein would best be described as ________.
A type of transport protein found in the plasma membrane of cells lining the inside of the intestine allows sodium ions to diffuse down their concentration gradient. The ions move through the transport protein, and into the cell. These transport proteins will use the kinetic energy of the diffusing sodium ions to bring glucose into the cells as well. Which of the following would stop transport of glucose through this transport protein?
Stopping the activity of the sodium potassium pump.
What can we infer if we see a large number of mitochondria in a cell?
The cell has a great metabolic demand.
Which organelle is responsible for synthesizing proteins?
Lysosomes perform digestive functions within a cell.
Babies with Tay-Sachs disease cannot be treated by injecting the missing enzyme into their blood because_________.
the enzyme functions only in lysosomes and not in the blood
In certain kinds of muscle cells, calcium ions are stored in ________.
the smooth ER
Which of the following is NOT a function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
protein synthesis in conjunction with ribosomes
Which of the following is NOT a function of lysosomes?
help in the formation of cell membranes
Myocardium (cardiac muscle tissue) must rhythmically contract for a lifetime. This requires a considerable amount of energy production by the cells. You would expect to see a relatively high amount of which organelle in these cells?
Beta cells in the pancreas produce and secrete the protein hormone insulin. You would expect to see a relatively large amount of which organelles in these cells?
Golgi apparatus, rough endoplasmic reticulum
Which of the following organelles is correctly paired with its function?
smooth endoplasmic reticulum: metabolism of lipids
Your patient has a respiratory disease that has literally paralyzed the cilia. Why would this patient be at an increased risk for a respiratory infection?
If cilia are paralyzed then mucus-containing particles, including bacteria, will remain in the lungs and may cause a respiratory infection.
Which of the following structures would aid a cell in allowing more nutrients to be absorbed by the cell?
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