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King Charles I
(b. 1600, Absolutism, English Revolution): takes the throne of England in 1625, Parliament passes a law in 1628 that says no taxation without their permission, no jailings without a cause, no quartering soldiers in private houses, and no martial law in peacetimes, Charles approves this then in 1629 he reneges because it limits his power, from 1629 - 1640 Parliament was not called (angers the middle class and the gentry), displayed Catholic tendencies in Church (angered Puritans)
King Louis XIII
(b. 1601, Absolutism): assumed power at the age of 10, so his mother, Marie de Medicis took power, dismissed the Duke of Sully (Henry IV's finance minister and reason for his success) so France had no strong central power so the nobility and the Huguenots pushed their advantage
(b. 1601, Absolutism): succeeds Cardinal Richelieu in 1642, Louis XIV becomes king in 1643 at 5 so Mazarin and Anne of Austria rule together, his financial policies start the revolt fo the Fronde from 1648 - 1653
King Charles II
(b. 1630, English Revolution, Absolutism): the monarch restored to England after Oliver Cromwell's time as Lord Protector despite his Catholic leanings was crowned in 1661, in 1672 he issues the Royal Declaration of Indulgence which allowed for Catholics and Puritans to exist in England though that angered Parliament, provoking them to pass the Test Act in 1673 saying only Anglicans hold any offices, forcing Charles to undo the religious toleration, his heir was his bother James (a Catholic) and that sparked the Rye House Plot to kill them both in 1683 but it failed, Charles dissolves Parliament in 1679 and rules alone until his death in 1685 and James II is crowned
King James II
(b. 1633, Absolutism): became King of England in 1685, lacked moderation, tried to reimpose absolutism and Catholicism, in 1687 he issues the Declaration of Liberty of Conscience which granted religious freedom to everyone but the Protestants thought it favored the Catholics, in 1688 the birth of his son with James II's second (Catholic) wife caused panic because then a Catholic would be on the throne, Whigs and Tories in Parliament join together to drive out James II
King Louis XIV
(b. 1638, Absolutism): became king at age 5 in 1643, ruled with Cardinal Mazarin until his death in 1661 and then ruled alone, L'etat, c'est moi (I am the state), 1600 Louis marries Marie Therese (Spain) for political reasons, because of the Fronde he distrusts the nobility so he began selling titles to the highest bidder, built Versailles to keep the nobles near him and occupied with petty things, employed Jean-Baptiste Colbert to be his finance minister: strict mercantilism, build roads, gov't role in economy increased, 1685 revokes the Edict of Nantes (Huguenots: 10% of the population)
(b. 1642, Scientific Revolution): taught at Cambridge, wrote Principia in 1687 which included the 3 Laws of Motion (at rest unless acted upon, rate of change proportionate to the force, equal and opposite reaction), applied math to astronomy, and later he came introduced the concept of gravity to modern science
William III of Orange
(b. 1650, Post-Counter-Ref): had most of the power in the new Dutch Republic, was part of an established hierarchical monarchy though he struggled against the
States General and those who wanted a republic, ruled the Netherlands after the Thirty-Years War (1618-1648), during the Glorious Revolution in 1688 he and his wife Mary took over England after the James Charles Charles James affair, when he died the Dutch monarchy was
dissipated and the Netherlands turned to a republic
Baron de Montesquieu
(b. 1689, Enlightenment): applied scientific method to politics and the social world, there are three kinds of governments a republic (small countries), a monarchy (middle sized), and despotism (big ones), wrote Spirit of the Laws (1748), established the system of checks and balances in a government (separation of powers)
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