Prejudice, Chapter 6
Terms in this set (42)
Beliefs about social groups in terms of the traits or characteristics that they are deemed to share. Stereotypes are cognitive frameworks that influence the processing of social information.
Stereotypes concerning the traits possessed by females and males, and that distinguish the two genders from each other.
Barriers based on attitudinal or organizational bias that prevent qualified women from advancing to top-level positions.
Tokenism can refer to hiring based on group membership. It also can concern instances in which individuals perform trivial positive actions for members of out-groups that are later used as an excuse for refusing more meaningful beneficial actions for members of these groups.
Views suggesting that women are superior to men in various ways and are truly necessary for mens happiness.
Social creativity responses
When low-status groups attempt to achieve positive distinctiveness for their group on alternative dimensions that do not threaten the high-status group (benevolent sexism).
The view that women are a threat to mens position.
Prejudice based on gender; it typically refers to biases and negative responses toward women.
The quality of being seen positively and as having worth.
Cognitive frameworks developed through experience that affect the processing of new social information.
When people use one group as the standard but shift to another group as the comparison standard when judging members of a different group.
Response scales that are open to interpretation and lack an externally grounded referent, including scales labeled from good to bad or weak to strong. They are said to be subjective because they can take on different meanings, depending on the group membership of the person being evaluated.
Scales with measurement units that are tied to external reality so that they mean the same thing regardless of category membership.
Comparisons made between a target and other members of that same category only.
A subset of a group that is not consistent with the stereotype of the group as a whole.
The perception of a stronger association between two variables than actually exists.
The tendency to perceive members of an out-group as "all alike" or more similar to each other than members of the in-group.
The tendency to perceive members of our own group as showing much larger difference from one another (as being more heterogeneous) than members of other groups.
In-group members are seen as more similar to each other than out-group members are. This tends to occur most among minority-group members.
Negative attitudes toward the members of specific social groups.
When people are categorized into different groups based on some "minimal" criteria, they tend to favor others who are categorized in the same group as themselves, compared with those categorized as members of a different group.
Those feelings induced separately or before a target is encountered-so they are irrelevant to the group being judged, but can still affect judgments of the target.
Links between group membership and trait associations or evaluations of which the perceiver may be unaware. They can be activated automatically when the target is categorized as a group member.
Stimuli shown to participants so rapidly that the stimuli cannot be recognized or identified by them.
Threat can take different forms, but it primarily concerns fear that one's group interests will be undermined or that one's self-esteem is in jeopardy.
Realistic conflict theory
The view that prejudice stems from direct competition between various social groups over scarce and valued resources.
Goals that can be achieved only by cooperation between groups.
The tendency to divide the social world into separate categories: our in-group ("us") and various out-groups ("them").
The social group to which an individual perceives herself or himself as belonging ("us").
Any group other than the one to which individuals perceive themselves as belonging.
Ultimate attribution error
The tendency to make more favorable and flattering attributions about members of one's own group than about members of other groups. In effect, it is the self-serving attributional bias at the group level.
Social identity theory
A theory concerned with the consequences of perceiving the self as a member of a social group and indentifying with it.
Differential (usually negative) behaviors directed toward members of different social groups.
More subtle beliefs than blatant feelings of superiority. Modern racism consists primarily of thinking that minorities are seeking and receiving more benefits than they deserve and a denial that discrimination affects their outcomes.
Using a stimulus to make accessible related information in memory.
Bona fide pipeline
A technique that uses priming to measure implicit racial attitudes.
Ambivalent racial attitudes
Both positive and negative feelings about a minority group.
Social learning view (of prejudice)
The view that prejudice is acquired through direct and vicarious experiences in much the same manner as other attitudes.
The view that increased contact between members of various social groups can be effective in reducing prejudice among them.
Shifts in the boundaries between an individual's in-group ("us") and some out-group ("them"). As a result of such recategorization, persons formerly viewed as out-group members may now be viewed as belonging to the in-group, and consequently are viewed more positively.
Common in-group identity model
A theory suggesting that to the extent to which individuals in different groups view themselves as members of a single social entity, intergroup bias will be reduced.
Rules within a particular social group concerning what actions and attitudes are appropriate.
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