Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Nursing Research Test 1 -INTRO
Terms in this set (90)
What is Nursing Research
Scientific process that validates and refines existing knowledge and generates new knowledge that directly and indirectly influences nursing practice
Research findings become the basis for clinical protocols and practice guidelines thus providing a link between...
theory, education and practice (they are all related)
Without the nursing research, our practice would be guided by what?
guided by personal experiences, intuition, authority, tradition, trial and error, reasoning (both inductive and deductive-will discuss later) and borrowed evidence
What is evidence based practice ? (EBP)
the collection, interpretation and integration of valid, important, and applicable patient-reported, clinician observed, and research derived evidence utilized to drive nursing practice
What is the goal of nursing ?
To promote quality and cost effective outcomes
What is the purpose of research in evidence based practice?
description of nursing phenomena, prediction of probability of a specific outcome in a given situation and control in order to prescribe an intervention to produce desired results
What is nursing research utilization?
systematic application of a scientifically sound research based innovation in health care setting while assessing outcomes of change
Example of nursing research utilization
not everyone that is hospitalized, will get a catheter & decrease disease in result
her concepts of health promotion, disease prevention and care of the sick are congruent with current priorities of nursing research
Pre 1950, what was the nursing research history?
nursing education research predominated with clinical research focused on M & M rates of disease
Nursing research history - 1960s
practice oriented research targeted
Nursing research history - 1980's
emphasis on closing gaps between research and practice (research utilization)
Nursing research history - 1985
Public Law 99-158 established the National Center for Nursing Research (NCNR) which provided funding programs focused on studies related to health care outcomes
Nursing research history - 1993
NCNR becomes National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR)
What is NINR
Research encompassing every discipline and every stage of life-from genomic research in the lab, to family health practice in the community, to health policy formation in the legislature
Future of nursing research - NINR areas of focus
- Promoting personalized health strategies to manage symptoms
- Promoting health & preventing disease
- Improve QOL for individuals with chronic illness
-Advancing EOL and Palliative care (manage illness to improve QOL)
- Promoting use of technology to improve health
- promoting innovated strategies for 21st century nursing research careers
2 types of Research
qualitative and quantitative
what is Basic Research?
gain knowledge for the sake. Basic-theoretical or pure research that generates, tests and expands theories that explain or predict a phenomena
What is Applied Research?
discover knowledge that will solve a clinical problem (direct application to practice). Applied-tests the practical limits of descriptive theories but does not examine the efficacy (effectiveness) of actions taken by practitioners
When is qualitative research used?
Utilized when the question to be answered involves the understanding of the meaning of a human experience
Description of qualitative research
-Meaning of the experience varies and may change based on context and subjectivity
-Is systematic, but a subjective approach
-Conducted in natural setting
-Data are words, rather than statistics
-Allows for an in-depth study secondary to small number of participants
-Does NOT contain a Hypothesis
what is quantitative research?
Systematic, formal, objective study of research questions and/or hypotheses that describe phenomena, test relationships, assess differences, and seek to explain cause and effect interactions between variables
What are the characteristics of quantitative research?
-Data are numeric and analyzed using statistics
-Techniques are systematic
- methodology is controlled
- tests hypotheses or answers a research question based on framework
What is outcomes research?
Research which focuses on examining the result of care or determining the changes in health status for the patient
Four areas of investigation
what are the 4 areas of investigation with outcome research?
- patient responses (treatment)
- Functional status maintenance/improvement
-cost (best outcome & save money_
- patient satisfaction (bad and good reviews on institution)
What is the role of RN's in research ?
All RNs are consumers of research
- i.e., individuals who read, review, and critique nursing research findings and attempt to use and
apply the findings in practice
Associate degree RN
- aware of the value of research
- assist in identification of problems and participate in data collection
- team members in the development/revision and implementation of clinical standards, guidelines,and protocols
- utilization of findings in conjunction with the professional nurse
BS RN role
- knowledgeable consumers of research
- able to critique research and utilize existing standards to determine the merit and readiness
of research for use in clinical practice
- pilot trial
- responsibility to generate clinical questions and participate in implementation of studies
- participate in research projects
- share research findings with peers
Nursing process & research process are different, what is the nursing process
- Focus is specific patient care problem using assessment, nursing diagnoses, planning, implementation, and evaluation
- Purpose is to plan and direct care for patient, family, or patient groups
- Outcome is improvement of health for patient or family (but of course you knew that!!!!)
Nursing process & research process are different, what is the research process?
-Focus is broad, drawing from nursing and other disciplines, using scientific methods with
-Purpose is to generate new knowledge that could be widely applied to promote (outcomes as follows)
-(Outcomes) positive health outcomes for patient populations, enhance overall quality and cost-effectiveness of care, and improve the healthcare delivery system
Elements of research process
identification of problem/ purpose/questions
Definition of the purpose
Literature review & theoretical framework
Reliability & Validity
Procedures & data collection methods
Recommendations and implications for practice, limitations of study
What is an abstract?
brief overview of the study; provides main components of the study
what is the purpose to identify the purpose/research question
Provides a picture of the area being researched
what is the definition of purpose
-aims or goals the investigator hopes to achieve with the research
-decision whether hypothesis or research question
- routinely defined at end of lit review of conceptual framework
what is a literature review?
-main concepts of study are described
-based on other literature
proposed explanation that is dependent on type of study; i.e., quantitative studies use hypotheses or research questions
what nursing research uses hypothesis?
what nursing research uses research questions?
What is sampling?
the population from which the sample was chosen and the number of subjects that participated, as well as those who were lost from the study
what is reliability/validity?
description of the instruments or scales utilized and the reliability and validity of each
what are procedures/data collection methods?
step by step manner in which data was collected and the study was conducted
what is data analysis/results?
statistical tests utilized or procedures for analyzing themes, concepts or observations
what is a discussion?
ties together all the pieces of the study and gives you a picture of the study as a whole; compare the study results with other studies of the same topic
what are recommendations/implications
- report of use of data in practice, education, and research
- report of limitations of the study
- report of potential for future research
what are references?
- all sources cited
- purpose is to support material presented in the study
what is critical reading for critical appraisal/critique
examination of strengths, weaknesses, meaning, credibility, and significance of practice of a study
critical reading involves 4 levels of understanding
*may differ btw qualitative and quantitative
Critical reading - comprehension
understanding terms/concepts and identifying steps in research process
critical reading - comparison
research process steps in study vs. the ideal
Critical reading - analysis understanding
break it down into parts and understand each aspect and the logical links connecting one study element to another (what we are doing for paper).
-basis for the critique of the strengths and weaknesses of the research study
-critiquing criteria include the standards, evaluation guides, and questions utilized to judge each step of the research process
critical reading - evaluation
meaning and significance of the study findings, conclusions, limitations, implications and suggestions for further study are examined
- critique formulated during this phase
-answer the question of how well the study meets critiquing criteria, as well as how useful to practice
what is a Research question (problem statement)
presents the idea that is to be examined in the study and is the foundation of the research study;indentifies the specific gap in knowledge needed for practice
what should the research question indicate?
indicate that practical experience, critical review of the literature, and interest in the theory and/or the area in question have provided the basis for the research idea
steps in research question development
-Define area of interest and refine to ensure that the study is not too broad
-Utilize databases to investigate literature related to refined area of interest-most often found in implications section, which defines areas for further research, etc.
-Determine significance for nursing
-Feasibility assessed, i.e., availability of subjects, facilities, $$, equipment, experience of the researcher, ethical considerations
what are the purposes of research questions?
-Potential benefit for patients, nurses, society by influencing nursing practice
-Results applicable to practice, education, or administration
-Results theoretically relevant
-Findings will support, extend, promote or challenge previous research and/or theories
-Findings will provide evidence that supports developing, revising, or retraining nursing policies/practices
-Addresses current concerns or priorities in nursing
What are the three criteria needed for research question?
-Variables clearly identified
-possibility of empirical testing (testability)
what are variables?
properties that can take on different values (they vary). They attempt to understand how and why differences in one variable relate to differences in another variable
what are the types of variables?
independent and dependent
which variable is X
which variable is Y
are there restrictions on the number of variables that can be used in a study?
what does the independent (x) variable do
has the presumed effect on Y, the dependent variable
what study manipulates the independent variable?
what study assumes X has occurred naturally before or during study?
what does the dependent (Y) variable do
presumed effect that varies in response to X, in independent variable. Therefore, predictions can be made from independent to dependent
is the y variable manipulate?
variability in Y does not imply?
X does not cause Y because?
there are too many variables
what are extraneous varaibles?
-Variables which exist in all studies and can affect the measurement of study variables and their relationships
-Classified as recognized/unrecognized and controlled/uncontrolled
what are types of extraneous variables?
confounding & environmental
what is a confounding extraneous variable?
not recognized until study in progress, or recognized pre-study but cannot be controlled. Ex. Grief and ability to assess patients status
what is an environmental extraneous variable
setting in which study is conducted
Ex: study of grief in ICU vs. Hospice
what are demographic variables
age, race, education, gender, marital status, socioeconomic status (SES), medical diagnosis
-Must be clearly described to allow for replication of the study
Does the application of anti embolism stockings reduce incidence of DVTs? what are the x & y variables
X- application of anti embolism socks
Does the application of a TENS unit to individuals with osteoarthritis improve functional ability? what are the X & Y variables
X- application of tens unit
Y - functional ability
what is testability?
-Measurable by qualitative or quantitative methods
-Relationship of variables should be configured in such a way that this relationship can be measured
what is a hypothesis
Statement about the expected or predicted relationship between two or more variables in a specific population that suggests an answer to the research question
what does the hypothesis do for a research question?
converts research question into a prediction of an expected outcome
when is the hypothesis formulate?
before the study begins to provide direction for the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data
not all quantitative studies have hypothesis, why?
a study may be exploratory or may be a hypothesis generating study
What are characteristics of a good hypothesis?
Declarative relationship statement that identifies predicted relationship between two or more variables - either causal or associative
what is a causal variable?
X causes a change in Y
what is associative variable
X systematically associated with Y (will mostly be associative because it is hard to control)
what is testability of a good hypothesis
variables lend themselves to observation, measurement and analysis
a good hypothesis should be consistent with?
an existing body of theory and research findings
specifies the expected direction of the relationship between X and Y
indicates the existence of a relationship between X and Y, but does not specify the anticipated direction
what is a research hypothesis
states what the researcher believes is the expected outcome of the study; can be either directional or nondirectional
statistical (null aka no) hypothesis
states that there is no relationship between X and Y; if the study determines there is a relationship, then the null hypothesis is rejected
Synchrony of maternal and newborn sleep rhythms will be negatively related to postpartum blues. identify the type of hypothesis, x & y variable
Y - postpartum blues
X - synchrony of maternal and newborn sleep rhythms
Sets with similar terms
Nursing Research Quiz Week 10
Evidence Based Practice Exam 1
332 exam review quiz questions
Other sets by this creator
Qualitative Research part 2
Qualitative Research Part 1
Legal and Ethical Issues
Lit Reviews and Theoretical Framework
Other Quizlet sets
Opioid Analgesics Management - Pharmacology - Test…
Social studies section 3
9/18/15- Problems of Survival (Food)
random stuff i found in the book - unit 2