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Cell Unit Study Guide

7th Grade Science - Cell Unit
STUDY
PLAY
The four characteristics of a living thing
Organization (Body Functions)
Grow and Develop
Respond to environment
Ability to reproduce
The three needs of living things
Energy
Materials
Living Space
What is #1?
Nucleolus
What is #2?
Nucleus
What is #3?
Ribosome
What is #4?
Vesicle
What is #5?
Endoplasmic Reticulum
What is #6
Golgi Apparatus
What is #7
Cell Membrane
What is #8
Endoplasmic Reticulum
What is #9
Mitochondria
What is #10
Vacuole
What is #11
Cytoplasm
What is #12
Lysosome
What is #13
Centrioles within the centrosome
What are two organelles that are found in plant cells but not in animal cells?
Cell Walls
Chloroplasts
What functions do the organelles that are found in plant cells serve?
Cell Walls support and protect
Cloroplast is used to produce food through photosynthesis
Explain the differences between a eukaryotic cell and a prokaryotic cell. Give examples of each
Eukaryotic cell has nucleus.
- contains genetic information about cell.
- Plant cells are eukaryotic.
Prokaryotic cell does not have nucleus.
- genetic information "floats" around in cell.
- Bacteria cells are prokaryotic.
Similarities between Single cell and multicell organisms
Both have some organelles
- nucleus.
- cytoplasm.
- cell membrane.
Both have same size cells.
Differences between single cell and multicell organisms
single cell has one cell, multicell has more than one cell.

single cell organismes tend to be smaller than multicell organisms.

multicell organisms have specialized cells to perform specific functions.
What is cellular respiration
-occurs in mitochondria.
-breaks down chemicals to produce energy.
Why do plants and animals need specialized cells? Give some examples.
Perform functions that sustain life.
- reproduction.
- photosynthesis.
- cellular respiration.
How are specialized cells grouped?
- Cells are organized in organism to perform functions.
- specialized cells group together to form tissues.
- for example, muscle tissue and organs.
What are the levels of organization in a living organism?
Specialized Cell - cells with specific functions.
Tissue - group of similar cells organized to do a specific job.
Organ - Different tissues that work to perform a function.
Organ system - groups of organs that perform a function.
What does semi-permeable or selectively permeable mean?
an object can allow certain things to pass through it, but controls what goes in and out
Asexual reproduction
one organism produces one or more new organisms that are identical to itself and that live independently of of it.
Sexual reproduction
tow organisms produce one or more new organism that are not identical to the parents and that live independently fro the two parents
Binary fission
Occurs in prokaryotes, when partet organism splits in two, produces two completely independent daughter cells
budding
a process in which an organisms develops tiny buds on its body. the bud grows until it forms a new organism.
regeneration
proces of new tissue growth at sites of a wound or lost limb (not a form of reproduction)
What are the advantages of asexual reproduction
fast reproductive rate
what are the disadvantages of asexual reproduction
lack of variety in species, can lead to extinction
Gene
a unit of heredity that occupies a specific location on a chromosome
gives instructions for a specific trait (blonde hair, blue eyes, etc)
Allele
come in pairs, in alternate forms of same gene
for example; Capital E might mean freckles, lower case e might mean no freckles
Dominant
the strong trait that appears in a persons phenotype
Recessive
the weaker trait that either does not show up when match with a stronger trait
OR
appears when it is matched with another recessive trait from the other parent
Nucleolus
inside the nucleus, produces ribosome parts
Nucleus
near the center of the cell, the "brain" of the cell, controls cell activities "control freak"
Ribosome
on the endoplasmic reticulum and in the cytoplasm, protein factory for the cell
Vesicle
in cytoplasm, storage area for protein, water, and other substances, carries substances from the endoplasmic reticulum to the golgi apparatus
Endoplasmic Reticulum
in the cytoplasm, transports protein
Golgi Apparatus
in the cytoplasm, packages and stores chemicals in the cell
Cell Membrane
Surrounds animal cell and is inside the cell wall of the plant cell. Controls the movement of substances into and out of the cell (gatekeeper)
Mitochondria
in the cytoplasm, produces and releases energy for the cell through cellular respiration (powerhouse)
Vacuole
in the cytoplasm, storage area for protein, water and other substances (there is a much larger one - central vacuole - in a plant cell, they are small in animal cells)
Cytoplasm
Everywhere, Jelly-like structure that fills most of cell, other organelles found in it
Lysosome
in cytoplasm, digests worn out organelles, destroys cell when worn out (garbage man)