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135 terms

Sociology Final

STUDY
PLAY
According to Randall Collin's research, the expansion of higher education is:
a result of credentialism and expenditures on formal education.
The author of the first methods book in the discipline of sociology:
Harriet Martineau
In contrast to functionalism, which theoretical perspective borrows from Marx's belief that competition, not consensus, is the essential cause of social change and is a normal part of society
Conflict Theory
Erving Goffman used the language of theater to describe how people present themselves in everyday social life. This is known as
Dramaturgical Theory
As defined by C. Wright Mills, which of the following "enables us to grasp history and biography and relations between the two within society:
Sociological Imagination
The approach to sociological research that starts with empirical observations and then works to form a theory:
Inductive
Martine is a sociologist who thinks that A is causing B. In fact, B is causing A. She needs to be careful to not make the mistake known as
Reverse casuality
Sociologists and psychologists sometimes use undergraduate students in their research. This could represent a potential problem regarding the goal of generalizability. Why?
College undergraduates are not typical of the public at large.
The likelihood that a researcher will obtain the same result using the same measure the ned time he or she tests a hypothesis is
Reliability
Andy hypothesized that the stress created during economic downturns would increase the probability of spousal abuse. In this hypothesis the stress would the the ____ variable and spousal would be the ____ variable.
independent;dependent
Everything in our constructed environment, including technology, buildings, furniture, clothing, and books is a part of
material culture
A type of nonmaterial culture known as ____ is a system of concepts and relationships sometimes use to understand cause and effect.
Ideology
While they are difficult to define, ____ are smaller subgroups within a larger dominant society that share some of the dominant cultural values but also have some of their own, unique material and symbolic culture
Subcultures
The theory that states that culture is a projection of the social structures and relationships into the public sphere is known as
Reflection theory
You take a trip to Alaska and find that Eskimo families sleep together naked to stay warm. You find this practice disgusting and ca't understand why they don't consider this incestuous. You are being:
Ethnocentric
In the U.S., six major companies, including Disney and Time Warner, own what percentage of the media?
90%
Part of the point of the documentary "Outfoxed" is to show the dangers of the ever-enlarging corporations taking control of the television news media. Although this is a notorious case study of one biased news outlet, Herbert Grans's research in the late 1970s showed that, in fact,
All news outlets are biased.
If we place nature and nurture at opposite ends of on a continuum, most sociologists would fall toward the nurture end of the continuum. Which statement best explains this tendency?
Sociologists focus on the social environment in explaining how people think, feel, and behave.
Which of the following is considered to be an advanced stage of development according to George Herbert Mead?
The game stage
The "I" and "me" are the two parts of the self, as theorized by Mead. Which of the following describes the difference?
The "I" is impulsive and may act selfishly, disregarding social expectations; the "me" is more influenced by societal norms and how we think others see us.
Expected conformity, especially among teenage friends, is known as
Peer pressure
The three basic tenets of symbolic interactionism include all of the following EXCEPT:
Humans inherit mutual understandings of symbols across cultures, times and social changes.

So... the three basic tenets are:
-Human being act toward ideas, concepts, and values on the basis of the meaning that those things have for them.
-These meanings are the products of the social interaction in human society.
-These meaning are modified and filtered through an interpretive process that each individual uses in dealing with outward signs.
Harold Garfinkel developed an approach to studying human interaction that focused on how people produce (and maintain) a mutually shared social order. This method is called:
Ethnomethodology
Goffman's theory of ____ argues that life is essentially a play, complete with actors, scripts, and roles.
Dramaturgy
Crime and deviance
Can be the same or entirely different phenomena
Who wrote a classic work arguing that the number of people in a group is important in determine the form social relationships will take within that group?
Simmel
When a dyad gains a new member, the third member can gain tremendous power. Which role involves playing one member against the other for his or her own advantage?
Divide and conquer

(other roles --> mediator or the third that rejoices)
The information, knowledge of people or things, and connections that help individuals enter preexisting networks or gain power from them.
Social capital
What trend did Robert Putnam focus on in his book Bowling Alone?
The declining interest in community-based activities and organizations.
Organizations that have a set of governing structures and rules for internal arrangements, such as the U.S. Army, are known as:
Formal organizations
C. Wright Mills's term for interlocking directorates
The power elite
The idea that we can scientifically and logically study social institutions and the individuals within them
Positivism
"the founding fathers of the sociological discipline"
Durkheim, Marx, Weber
Merton's theory that states that we learn society's expected goals and means to achieve them, and when we can't achieve them, we may adapt in a variety of ways is called...
Strain theory
Tracy is a person who desires a big mansion and perfect "American Dream" lifestyle, but sells illegal drugs to achieve this. According to Merton's theory, she is a(n):
Innovator
David Rosenhan sent some of his students to a psychiatric hospital saying they were "hearing voices." Each pseudo-patient was admitted and diagnosed with a mental disorder. He was illustrating
Labeling Theory
What crime has the most financial impact in the U.S. today?
White-collar crime
What standard of equality is most concerned with the distribution of resources?
Equality of outcome
Karl Marx and Jean-Jacques Rousseau tend to agree on at least one thing. They both felt that the primary source of social ills in society was the emergence of:
Private property
The modern capitalist society is an example of which type of society?
Bourgeois
How does the U.S. justify its type of stratification? (That is, what does our dominant ideology tell us about how inequality works?)
A person is in complete control over the class he or she is in. Hard work (or lack of it) determined class.
What group sells its labor to the bourgeoise in order to receive wages?
Proletariat
C. Wright Mills' term for interlocking directorates is:
The power elite
C. Wright Mills argues that there are three major institutions in the U.S. today that have the power to make decisions for the masses. Which one of the of the following is NOT one of these?
religion

but the three are..
-economy
-politics
-military
The term that refers to everything you own minus debts such as a mortgage on your home and credit card debt:
wealth

NOT
income, investments, net financial assets
The fastest-growing job market for people with only a high school education
Low-wage service work
Mobility that is caused by changes in the economy is called:
Structural mobility
Socio-economic status is a multi-dimensional factor that includes:
Education, Income, and Occupation
Dr. John Money claimed a genetic male could be raised as a girl and would turn out just fine. The David Reimer story showed that Money's claims were
wrong
Why would parents and surgeons push to assign a sex to a genitally ambiguous child?
Social discomfort and fear of difference
Emphasis on examples of female subordination in the Arab world, such as female genital cutting, can:
Distract from an analysis on how Western women are also subordinated
The idea that there was only one sex and the female body was an inversion of the male body was promoted by which culture?
Greek
By looking at anthropological findings in tribal societies, sociologists can see fluidity in gender, which helps us see that the boundaries within our own system of gender:
May not be stable
Hegemonic masculinity can best be described as
The dominant, privileged, and often invisible category of men at any point in history
Sociologist Cynthia Fuchs Epstein coined the term deceptive distinctions to refer to the behavioral differences between men and women that arise because of
The different roles they come to occupy
Bob and Sue paint their baby's room pink as soon as they find out that they are having a girl. They are beginning to provide the baby with what?
Her gendered identity
Although female circumcision is a custom in some societies, a structural functionalist might argue that this practice exists because it:
Fulfills some set of necessary functions
Black feminists argue all of the following except:
All women are in a similar boat and faced with the same hegemonic masculinity

They argue..
The experiences of women are to diverse to lump them all into one category
Black women face unique oppressions that white women, and even black men, do not
Dominant white notions of society are sometimes irrelevant to the daily lives of black women.
Prison rape is usually about power, and a man who commits a homosexual act within prison:
Does not necessarily view himself as a homosexual
Which theoretical perspective argues that gender is a product of social interactions, and that by "doing gender" men and women create and contribute to the gendered patterns we see?
Symbolic Interaction
The concept of race
Has changed over time

NOT..
biological
is stable and constant
The one-drop rule asserts that just "one drop" of black blood makes:
a person black
Although we now now all humans are the same species, there is still an underlying belief that we can trace specific traits through
our race
Aristotle's principal of civil association was that the true test of a person's worth was in what they did, not who they were. All people were included in this EXCEPT:
Women

It did include..
brown-skinned people
whites
nonwhites
The General Social Survey asked respondents why, on average, African Americans have worse jobs, income, and housing than white people. Nearly half of the respondents believed that blacks
Don't have the motivation to pull themselves out of poverty
The majority of Latinos in the U.S. have immigrated here within the last..
40 years
Thought and feelings (usually negative) about an ethnic or racial group are referred to as:
Prejudice

Not..
discrimination
modern racism
Which of the following is NOT a reason for the decline in doctors' authority after 1990?
Increase in the death rate of patients under a doctor's care

But these are..
Concerns about the rising cost of health care
Increase in the exploration of the alternative medicine
Rising ability of nurse practitioners to treat patients
A government program that provides health insurance for the poor is
Medicaid

NOT
medicare, blue cross, or HMOs
Morbidity
illness
Mortality
death
The longevity discrepancy between blacks and whites may be a sign of
Social inequality
Why did the elderly who received more Social Security have higher mortality rates than the elderly who received less Social Security and had to work part time?
Those who worked were healthier due to greater social interaction
What is one of the most important factors in defeating infectious diseases, according to the U.N.?
Increasing access to clean water
After mental illness became "medicalized," what was one major change that occurred?
Medication replaced counseling
In 1980, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) III:
Adopted a medical model of mental illness
What population currently has the highest rate of HIV contraction in the U.S.?
African-American women
Which profession has the least number of practitioners in the U.S.
Doctors
According to Stephanie Coontz,
Full-time moms were valued, placed on a pedestal and held in high esteem in the 19th century
In the 1950s, which theorist identified the traditional nuclear family model as a functional necessity in modern industrial society?
Parsons
On most weekends, you can find the Smiths doing their assigned chores around the house. Typically, the son mows the lawn and helps his dad with auto maintenance, while daughters help clean the house and prepare the meals. This distribution of chores reflects
How gender roles are learned at home
According to Ruth Schwartz Cowan's 1983 research, time-saving devices like the vacuum cleaner and washing machine have actually increased the amount of time that women spend on housework. What explanation is given for her finding?
Standards of cleanliness have also rise, so even more cleaning is expected.
According to research by Usdansky and Rachel Gordon (and discussed by Stephanie Coontz), what mothers of young children were most likely to experience depression?
Those who were full-time homemakers but wanted to have a job outside the home
What percentage of full-time homemakers said they would prefer to be working at a paid job
40%
Grandparents, aunts, uncles and cousins who live together in a multigenerational household are
extended family
Anthropologist Bronislaw Malinowski examined the family structure on nontraditional cultures and settles a long-standing debate when he concluded that:
The family was indeed a universal human institution
Which of the following characterized the preindustrial family?
Husbands and wives were partners not only in making a home but in making a living
The notion that true womanhood centers on domestic responsibilities and child rearing is known as
The cult of domesticity
In examining the institution of education, which theoretical perspective focuses on questions such as the following: How important are interactions among students and between student/teachers? Does school have an impact on the development of the self?
Symbolic Interactionism
What percent of the population over 16 lacks the ability to read and write well enough to function in society
14%
Intended consequences of our institutional policies are called:
Manifest functions
The 1966 Coleman Report was a systematic, wide-scale evaluation of data from students and schools facilities that had what surprising finding?
Differences in school characteristics explained very little in terms of achievement; what mattered more was family background and peers.
According to Pitirim Sorokin, we sort students into different classes in school because
some students are naturally talented and better able to excel in school.
The manifest goal of educational tracking is
To tailor a student's experiences in school to best fit their goals, aspirations, and potential
According to Annegrette Staiger, academic tracking and gifted and talented programs
Allow us to reproduce race privilege even as we render it invisible and deny it exists.
How has the boy-girl achievement gap changed during the past several years?
Girls have caught up with boys in most measures of educational achievement.
Adam Smith was an economist who believed that:
-Competition helps maintain a cohesive society
-Specialization increased productivity and innovation
-Using money, rather than barter, makes trading more efficient.
According to Karl Marx, the defining characteristic of any economic system is
social relations of production
The rise of large-scale production, the influx of peasants to urban areas to find work, and the rise of a system of wage labor caused the ____ system to become obsolete, in favor of a new system of legal currency.
Barter

NOT
barter & exchange
All of the following characterize the "new economy" of the 21st century, EXCEPT
Greater company loyalty to workers, including providing better benefits and job security

These do characterize it...
An increase in the number of service sectors
Greater likelihood of part-time work and full-time work with little security
Americans are working more hours, but their wages are stagnating
According to Karl Marx, why are workers in a capitalist economy alienated from the products they produce?
-they have no part in conceptualizing those products
-specialization has them focusing on one small step in a complex production process
-for the most part they could never afford to buy those products
Americans work ___ hours as/than citizens of other industrialized nations, but have ___ vacation benefits.
more; worse
Which of the following is NOT an example of legal-rational institution
A family

But these are..
-prison
-university
-hospital
Charismatic Authority
Authority that rests on the personal appeal of an individual leader
The Second Shift
Hochchild's term for the disproportionate amount of household work that working mothers in the U.S. continue to shoulder
Percentage of Americans that marry at some point in their lives, more than in any other industrialized nation in the world.
90%
Hidden Curriculum
Rather than just teaching "reading, writing and arithmetic," schools also teach approaches to living and attitudes to learning.
Throughout the world, members of _____ groups do less well w/ regard to education, even when they are racially indistinguishable from other groups.
stereotyped
Family Leave Act
Signed by Bill Clinton giving American workers the right to 12 weeks of unpaid leave to care for a newborn baby or attend to family emergencies.
According to Karl Marx, one key characteristic of capitalism is that ____ own their own labor power.
workers
Soft power
Term used to describe non-coercive power, which allows one to get others to do what you want through attraction and convincing them it's really in their own interest.
Contrary to _____ theory, much of what children learn in schools not relevant to the jobs they will have.
Functionalist
Stratification
Describes structured, systematic social inequalities among groups of people that arise as intended or unintended consequences of social processes and relationships.
Glass Escalator
When token men enter feminized jobs and enjoy a quicker rise to leadership positions.
In the 19th century, theories of race moved from religious-based racism to _____
scientific racism
Racialization
A shift from being formally unnoticed as a group to being singled out for heightened discrimination and prejudice.
Federal Housing Administration
Had a pivotal governmental role in shaping segregated suburban housing development in the years following WWII through mortgage guarantees.
Code-Switching
i.e. African-Americans acting differently in white-dominated society in order to be accepted.
Model Minority
i.e. Asian Americans
Gender
The roles created from the socialization that someone experiences determined by their sex.
The leading killer worldwide
waterborne illness
The pay gap between men's and women's full-time, year round pay is approximately:
20%
Medicalized condition
Once though of as a result of moral weakness (alcoholism) it is now considered an illness that is treatable under a doctor's care.
Looking-Glass Theory
Charles Horton Cooley argued that the self emerges from how we envision others perceive us.
Symbolic Interactionism
A theoretical perspective in sociology that focuses on the micro level of analysis.
Deductive Approach
Starting with a theory, then hypothesis, then empirical observations.
Sample
Subset of the population
Culture relativism
Ruth Benedict's term for taking into account differences across cultures without passing judgement or assigning value.
Socialization
Learning how to be "human" (that is, learning the norms and values) in a culture.
Ascribed status
Involuntary, inherited statuses (such as age, race, and sex).
Generalized Other
Part of Mead's theory of socialization, represents an internalized sense of society's and people's expectations in a variety of social settings.
Dyad
Group of two people
Primary Social Groups
Charles Horton Cooley's definition of social groups where the relationships are intimate and emotional.
Developed the first theory of suicide, also known as normative theory.
Durkheim
Total Institutions
Those in which all aspects of life are conducted n the same place and under the same single authority. i.e. prisons, boarding school, and military boot camp.