Evidence-Based Practice Final Exam
Terms in this set (87)
a naturalistic approach to research in which the focus is on understanding the meaning of an experience from the individual's perspective
a traditional approach to research in which variables are identified and measured in a reliable and valid way
Mixed Methods Research
a research approach that combines quantitative elements; it involves the description of the measurable state of a phenomenon and the individual's subjective response to it
Theoretical, pure, fundamental, or bench research done to advance knowledge in a given subject area
Research conducted to gain knowledge that has a practical application and contributes in some way to a modification of practice
highly structure studies of cause and effect, usually applied to determine the effectiveness of an intervention. Subjects are selected and randomly assigned to groups to represent the population.
studies of cause and effect similar to experimental design but using convenience samples or existing groups to test interventions
Research designed to describe in detail some process, event, or outcome. The design is used when very little is known about the research.
Research designed to quantify the strength and the direction of the relationship of two variables in a single subject or the relationship between a single variable in two samples
Research designed to search for variables measured at one point in time that may forecast an outcome that is measure at a different point in time
studies conducted using data that have been collected about events that have already happened. Secondary data that was originally collected for a purpose other than the current research.
studies planned by the researcher for collection of primary data for the specific research and implemented in the future
Studies conducted by following subjects over a period of time with data collection occurring at prescribed intervals
studies conducted by looking at a single phenomenon across multiple populations at a single point in time with no intent for follow-up in the design
The Institutional Review Board is the board required in research institutions that reviews and oversees all research involving human subjects and ensures the studies meet all federal regulation criteria, including ethical standards.
Informed consent is when the participant has full disclosure of the study including risks involved, and still agrees to participate.
to agree to something after thoughtful consideration
Reports of original research authored by the researcher and published in a scholarly source such as a peer-review research journal or scholarly book
comments and summaries of multiple research studies on one topic such as systematic reviews, meta-analysis, which are based on the secondary author's interpretation of the primary work
a way to measure quality and impact of research by noting how often a researcher's articles are referred to in another researcher's work
Questions we expect to answer through research; purposes of inquiry
Statements of the disparity between what is known and what needs to be known and addressed by the research
declarative and objective statements that indicate the general goal of the study and often describe the direction of the inquiry
a question that outlines the primary components that will be studied and guides the design and methodology of the study
a restatement of the research question in a form that can be analyzed statistically for significance
a statement of the research question that declares there is no difference between groups
a two-sided statement of the research question that is interested in change in any direction
a one-sided statement of the research question that is interested in only one change in direction
collections of interrelated concepts that depict a piece of theory that is to be examined as the basis for research studies. Theses are foundations that guide the research. p.133
An outcome of interest that occurs after the introduction of an independent variable. The "effect" of "cause and effect"
a factor that is artificially introduced into a study explicitly to measure an expected effect. The "cause" of "cause and effect"
factors that exert an effect on the outcome but that are not part of the planned experiment and may confuse the interpretation of the results
sampling of participants who meet certain inclusion criteria and then stratifying them according to other criteria like age or gender
Probability and Random Sampling
sampling process used in quantitative research in which every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected
a non probability method of selecting a sample that includes subjects who are available conveniently to the researcher
a nonprobability sampling method that relies on referrals from the initial subjects to recruit additional subjects. This method is best used for studies involving subjects who possess sensitive characteristics or how are hard to find.
is a scale that uses attitude statements ranked on a 5 or 7 point scale.
a scale with a set of items on a continuum or statements ranging from one extreme to another. responses are progressive a cumulative
Visual Analog Scale
a rating type scale in which respondents mark a location on the scale corresponding to their perception of a phenomenon on a continuum. Ex the faces scale
Type I error
this error is the rejection of a true null hypothesis. Its saying it had an effect when it didn't have one.
Type II error
this error is the acceptance of a false hypothesis. Its saying there was no effect when there was an effect.
an analysis that indicates how large a sample is needed to adequately detect a difference in the outcome variable
collecting your own data
using someone else's data
data that can be named and placed into categories but cannot be ranked or measured on a scale. Like gender or ethnicity.
categorical data that can be put in rank order. Like scales, satisfaction and tumor stage
data measured on a scale that has consistent intervals Like: height, age, temperature, and speed
measures internal reliability. Coefficient alpha should exceed zero point seven
repeatedly measures something the same way
Primary Data Collection
collecting data for a specific study
Secondary Data Collection
collecting data for no specific purpose
questions with no predetermined set of responses
questions that use a fixed number of alternate responses. Forced to select answers or ratings on a scale
the exact mid point in a set of data
the most frequently occurring value in the data set
the average amount of variation of data points about the mean
the distance between the 2 most extreme values in a data set
Ex post facto research
an intact group design that relies on observation of the relationships between naturally occurring differences in the intervention and outcome
An intact group design that involves categorization o subjects into groups. An outcome of interest is measured and differences are attributed to the differences in classification of subjects
Similar to a retrospective study it looks back on two subject groups
Time series design
A type of quasi-experimental design that involves one group that receives the intervention; an outcome is measured repeatedly over time
Statistical test to determine if results found in a sample representative of a population
one sample T test
comparing a sample mean to a known population
independent samples T test
comparing one sample to another
Paired sample T test
one group, measured more than once
Chi square test of model fit
testing a sample proportion or rate against a known population mean
Chi square test of independence
testing a proporiton or rate in one sample against a proportion or rate in another
Chi square test of association
testing a proportion or rate of one variable in a sample with a second variable
testing a single dependent variable
testing a single dependent variable and potential convariates
Repeated measures ANOVA
testing a single dependent variable measured over time
two or more independent variables
The point at which no new information is being generated and the sample size is determined to be adequate
Extreme case sampling
sampling of unusual or special participants who exhibit the phenomenon of interest in its extremes
a qualitative date measure focused on ensuring that the results represent the underlying meaning of the data
the researcher attempts to enhance objectivity by reducing bias in methods and procedures
a qualitative data measure focused on the stability of the information across individuals or over time
a method of limiting the effects of researcher bias and setting them aside by demonstrating awareness of potential suppositions of the researcher
results can be transferred to situations with similar subjects and settings
enhancing credibility by cross-checking information and conclusions, using multiple data sources, using multiple research methods or researchers to study the phenomenon, or using multiple theories and perspectives to help interpret the data
a method of ensuring validity by having participants review and comment on the accuracy of transcripts, interpretations, or conclusions
a thorough and conscientious reflection and recording of the decisions that were made, procedures that were designed, and questions that were raised during analysis of data
used to describe designs that rely on data collected via interviews or document analysis and that use interpretive coding to arrive at themes and patterns. often used if no other classification fits.
investigation of the meaning of an experience among a group that has lived through it
a study of the features and interactions of a given culture
aimed at discovering and developing a theory based on systematically collected data about a phenomenon. The intent is to discover a patterns of reactions, interactions, and relationships among people and their concerns.