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P103 Exam 2
Terms in this set (153)
Recording electrodes are placed directly on the scalp to produce a(n)
The consumption of glucose in active regions of the brain underlies the usefulness of a(n)
heartbeat and breathing
The medulla is part of the brain that most directly regulates
The brainstem structure embedded within the brainstem that helps bring you out of sleep is called the
Janessa suffered a stroke that destroyed a specific part of her limbic system. Although she remembers events prior to her illness, she is unable to form new memories of her daily experiences. Janessa has most likely suffered damage to the
The thin surface layer of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebrum is called the
movement of mouth and lips
Direct stimulation of areas within the motor cortex would most likely result in
Alana suffered a brain disease that destroyed major portions of her temporal lobes. Alana is most likely to suffer some loss of
Plasticity refers to the brain's capacity to
build new neural pathways
in his or her left field of vision
If an individual's right cerebral hemisphere is completely destroyed by disease, that person is unable to see anything
Damage to the amygdala can result in the person being _____.
The left hemisphere communicates to the right hemisphere through the _____ _____.
The _____ lobe is one structure of the brain that only has one function.
The left side of the brain sees the _____ side of the world.
A condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain's two hemispheres from one another is called _____ _____.
you can speak the name of the object
If you see an object in your right visual field, which of the following is not true? Remember that the left brain sees objects in the right visual field.
Cindi prefers to take exams in the late afternoon rather than during the morning because her energy level and ability to concentrate are better at that time. Her experience most likely reflects the influence of the
The large, slow brain waves associated with NREM-3 sleep are called
Paradoxical sleep is to slow-wave sleep as ________ sleep is to ________ sleep.
Chronic sleep debt is most likely to promote
Which of the following sleep disorders would be the most incapacitating for a commercial bus driver?
Brain regions that are active as rats learn to navigate a maze show similar activity patterns again as the rats later experience
When Alissa awakened during a period of REM sleep, she reported experiencing intense fear. A PET scan most likely would reveal that her REM sleep was associated with increased activity in her
Sleepwalking typically occurs during
Which of the following is a sleep-inducing hormone?
slower and larger
Compared with alpha and beta waves, delta waves are
According to the book, the sleep cycle consists of _____ distinct stages. According to your professor, the sleep cycle actually consists of _____ stages.
The sleep-wake cycle follows a 24-hour clock called the _____ _____.
The relatively slow brain waves of the awake but relaxed state are known as _____ waves.
The bursts of brain-wave activity that occur during NREM-2 sleep are called _____ _____.
The sleep cycle repeats itself about every _____ minutes.
False sensory experiences that occur without any sensory stimulus are called_______
Memory is best defined as
the persistence of learning through the storage and retrieval of information.
An eyewitness to a bank robbery is asked to identify suspects from a police lineup. Which test of memory is being used?
Information-processing models compare human memory to a
Annika has difficulty forming long-term memories of classroom lessons because she can't focus her attention long enough to mentally grasp what is being taught. Annika most clearly demonstrates difficulty with
explicit memory; implicit memory
Effortful processing is to automatic processing as ________ is to ________.
Four-year-old Aaron doesn't recall ever seeing a hypodermic needle, and he can't remember the series of painful injections he received when he was a 2-year-old. When shown a hypodermic needle, however, he reacted with a classically conditioned fear response. Aaron's fear reaction indicates that he retains a(n) ________ memory.
visual stimulation; auditory stimulation
Iconic memory is to echoic memory as ________ is to ________.
The organization of individual items into larger familiar units is called
Deep and shallow processing refer to different types of
Encoding a word on the basis of its meaning produces a better memory of the word than encoding a word on the basis of its sound. This best illustrates the value of
A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier is
The processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously is _____ _____.
Memory that deals with facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare" is called _____ _____.
The type of spacing effect that produces quick, short-term learning and feelings of confidence is _____ _____.
Stimuli from the environment are first recorded in _____ memory.
The encoding words on a basic level based on the letters in the word or some other superficial characteristic is called______ ______.
Consciously recalling that Abraham Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth best illustrates
Damage to the ________ would most likely interfere with a person's ability to form new memories of a family vacation trip.
The cerebellum and basal ganglia play an important role in the processing of ________ memories.
Explicit memory is to ________ as implicit memory is to ________.
A year and a half after directly experiencing a San Francisco earthquake, people had very accurate recall of where they had been and what they were doing at the time of the earthquake. Their recall best illustrates ________ memory.
The amygdala is involved in the process of
Mood-congruent memory refers to the effect of emotional states on the process of
Lars was feeling depressed at the time of his high school graduation. Lars is especially likely to recall his high school graduation when he is
across multuple brain networks
Memories are stored
in the middle of the list
On the phone, Dominic rattles off a list of 10 grocery items for Kyoko to bring home from the store. Immediately after hearing the list, Kyoko attempts to write down the items. She is most likely to forget the items
In contrast to short-term memory, and contrary to popular belief, the capacity of permanent memory is essentially _____.
Explicit, conscious memories are either _____ (facts and general knowledge) or _____ (experienced events).
The process by which associations can lead to retrieval is called _____.
What we learn in one condition is best remembered in that same condition, called _____ _____ memory
serial position effect
The tendency to remember the first and last items in a list best is called the _____ _____ _____.
The _____ is responsible for emotional memories.
The inability to form new memories is called
explicit; automatic processing
Jimmy was a patient with anterograde amnesia triggered by brain damage in 1945. Jimmy lost his ability to form new ________ memories but his ability for ________ remained intact.
Much of what we sense we never notice. This most clearly leads to
An inability to access information in long-term memory is known as
After studying biology all afternoon, Alonzo is having difficulty remembering details of the organic chemistry material he memorized that morning. Alonzo's difficulty best illustrates
After having seen many pictures of the Lincoln Monument during his lifetime, Mr. Adams mistakenly recalled that he had actually visited the site. This best illustrates
While talking with a complete stranger she had just met in an airplane terminal, Jillian experienced an eerie sense of having had the same conversation with this same person before. Her experience best illustrates
Repeating someone's name several times shortly after being introduced to that person is an effective strategy for
It's evening and we're mentally replaying the day's events. We picture our facial expressions as we listened to a friend's tale of woe. Because we were unable to see these expressions at the time, our recall illustrates
The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information is called
A process in which previously stored memories, when retrieved, are potentially altered before being stored again is _____.
_____ ______ occurs when new learning disrupts recall of old information
A memory that has been corrupted by misleading information is called the _____ effect.
Sigmund Freud argued that we _____ painful or unacceptable memories to protect our self-concept and to minimize anxiety
You recognize a face at a social gathering but are unable to remember how you know that person. This is an example of _______ ________.
When Carlos was promoted, he moved into a new office with a new phone extension. Every time he is asked for his phone number, Carlos first thinks of his old extension, illustrating the effects of _____ ______.
outer layer of brain-4 lobes
connects to spinal cord-responsible for keeping you alive
responsible for breathing and heart rate- damage causes coma
attached to brain stem- moment to moment error correction-landing on your feet
connects cerebellum to cortex
immediately below cortex-receiving sensory info and sending it- smell doesn't go through here
responsible for emotions
involved in emotions-fear specifically- damage leads to emotional dysfunction (fearless)
inside temporal lobe- responsible for memory-damage causes amnesia
below thalamus- responsible for control of pituitary gland-responsible for homeostasis
right and left hemisphere ________ but dont connect
bundle of fibers that connects hemispheres-damage causes hemispheres to fight
in back of brain-responsible for vision
sense of touch-poor parietal lobe causes poor direction
side of brain-hearing and language
responsible for planning-executive system of brain-houses where motor skills are
the MRI gives you structure and the fMRI follows blood flow through the brain
The difference between the MRI and the fMRI is
naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue
what structure is not developed in other species
discovered by fritsch and hitzig at rear of frontal lobes
area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes information from skin senses and body parts movement
damage to frontal lobe causes what
the brain's ability to change, especially during childhood
the formation of new neurons
our left and right hemispheres serve differing functions; this specialization is apparent after brain damage
right brain sees ______ vision
we spend 1/3 of our lives doing what?
drowsy-phase 1 of NREM sleep-shallow sleep-transition period between being awake and being asleep
higher amplitude, low frequency-phase 2 of NREM sleep-have sleep spindles
rapid eye movement-shallowest sleep-high frequency, low amplitude waves-immobile-no muscle tone
brain activity is very active but you're asleep
stage 3 NREM sleep
when you sleepwalk, sleeptalk, toss + turn, have night terrors you are in
dreams get interrupted at the _______
vivid dreams occur in
non REM sleep- stop breathing abruptly during sleep and you have to wake up to breathe
inability to fall asleep
non rem-unpredictably fall asleep at any time
rem sleep-body is still paralyzed but their brain is awake
suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
causes the pineal gland to decrease production of melatonin-causes you to fall asleep
high arousal and appearance of being terrified, target children during first few hours of NREM-3 sleep
a measure of memory in which the person identifies items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test
a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material again
encoding, storage, and retrieval
three processes of human memory
20-30 seconds, we encode through rehearsal
long term memory
relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system of knowledge, skills, and experiences, for later retrieval
stresses the active processing occurring in the second memory stage
retention of learned skills or classically conditioned associations independent of conscious recollection-automatic processing m
people can store about ______ bits of info (give or take a few)
memory aids, especially techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
organizations of items into a few broad categories that are divided and subdivided into narrower concepts and facts
encoding is more effective when it is spread over time
produces better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice
enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading, information. repeated self testing does more than assess learning: it improves it
encodes semantically, based on the word meaning (why the things are in that specific order)
explicit memory of facts and general knowledge
explicit memory of personally experienced events
neural storage of long term memories
deep brain structures involved in motor movememt, facilitate formation of our procedural memories for skills (walking)
no memory before 3-5- the structures needed are not in place
last few words in a list are more memorable-remember whats more recent
1st few words are more memorable
more likely to recall things that stand out
clear memories of emotionally significant moments or events, occur via emotion-triggered hormonal changes and rehearsal
state dependent memory
emotions that accompany good or bad events become retrieval cues
mood congruent memory
the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with ones current good or bad mood
context dependent memory
involves improved recall of specific information when the context present at encoding and retrieval are the same
even after encoding something well, we sometimes later forget it
had epilectic seizures- had memory of everything but no new memory could be made (couldnt form explicit memories only implicit)
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